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Stinging nettle

Medicinal Plants of Jamaica and Their Uses – Part 2

The information provided in this article are excerpts from the research of medicinal plants carried out at the Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, The University of the West Indies (UWI), Mona, Jamaica, between 1948 and 2001. The data is organised as listed in the following tables but will be presented in two (2) separate parts.

Table 1: Organisms used for testing bioactivity of plant extracts and natural products.
Table 2: Summary of plants that exhibited the most medicinal bioactivity.
Table 3: Summary of plants that exhibited the most agricultural bioactivity.
Table 4: Natural products isolated from plants tested at UWI between 1948 and 2001.
Table 5: ‘Medicinal’ plants of Jamaica studied at the University of the West Indies, Mona – family, botanical name, common name, growth range, growth.
Table 6: ‘Medicinal’ plants of Jamaica studied at the Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona – Research conducted between 1948 and 2001, and literature reference.

Below you will find tables 5, 6 and the reference.

Table 5: ‘Medicinal’ plants of Jamaica studied at the University of the West Indies, Mona – family, botanical name, common name, growth range, growth habit, and ethnomedicine

PRN and FamilyBotanical nameCommon nameGrowth rangeGrowth HabitEthnomedicine/Biological activities (Uses as stated in papers)
1. AcanthaceaeAsystasia gangeticaNo name givenOld World tropics, cultivatedHerbNot mentioned
2. Acanthaceae+Justicia pectoralisFresh cut, garden balsamMexico to Northern S. America, WIHerbWounds, colds, constipation, colic
3. Amaranthaceae+Achyranthes indicaDevil’s horse whipSubtropics and tropicsHerbColds, colic, flu, malaria, veneral diseases
4. AmaryllidaceaeAllium cepaOnionWidely cultivatedHerbSeasoning
5. Anacardiaceae+Anacardium occidentaleCashewWidely distributed in tropicsTreeColds, fever, ulcers, belly ache
6. Anacardiaceae+Mangifera indica L.MangoWidely distributedTreeFever, diarrhoea, laxative (esp black mango)
7. AnacardiaceaeSpondias dulcisJune plumTropicsTreeControls sugar
8. Anacardiaceae+Spondias mombinHog plumWidely distributedTreeColds, oedema, coughs, constipation, tapeworm
9. Annonaceae+Annona muricataSoursopTropicsTreeTranquiliser, dewormer, fever, dysentery, antispasmodic, colds, pains, diuretic
10. Annonaceae+Annona reticulata L.Custard appleTropicsTreeAntihelminthic, dysentery, diarrhoea
11. Annonaceae+Annona squamosaSweetsopTropicsTreeFever, painful spleen, labour pains, fainting, laxative, antihelminthic, diarrhoea, indigestion
12. Apocynaceae+Catharanthus roseusPeriwinkleSubtropics and tropicsHerbLeukaemia, astringent, diabetes
13. ApocynaceaeErvatamia divaricataCoffee roseNot givenShrubInsecticidal, acaricidal
14. ApocynaceaeNerium oleander L.OleanderNative of EurasiaShrubNot mentioned
15. AraliaceaeOreopanax capitatusWoman woodC. America, WIShrubNot mentioned
16. Araliaceae+Polyscias guilfoyleiAraliaTrop America, WIShrubColds
17. Asclepiadaceae+Asclepias curassavicaRed top, red headAmerican sub-tropics and tropicsHerbVermifuge, sores, stops bleeding, coughs, boils, warts
18. BignoniaceaeCatalpa longissimaFrench oakPacific and WITreeHaemorrhoids, astringent
19. Bignoniaceae+Crescentia cujeteCalabashTropicsTreeCoughs, colds, purgative, poultice
20. BignoniaceaeTecoma stansYellow cedar, Jamaican lilacTropicsShrubFever
21. BixaceaeBixa orellanaAnnattoTropicsTreeOrange dye, oral hyperglycaemic
22. BoraginaceaeCordia browneiBlack sageGr. Cayman, Jamaica*ShrubColds, fever, insomia
23. Boraginaceae+Cordia globosaSageNot givenShrubColds, high blood pressure, fever, asthma
24. BoraginaceaeCordia sebestenaGeiger treeTropicsTreeSharpening appetite
25. Boraginaceae+Heliotropium angiospermumPink sageTrop. America to GuyanaHerbColds, colic, billiousness, sore eyes
26. BoraginaceaeSymphytum officinaleComfreyWidely distributedHerbAnaemia, fatigue, pains, colds
27. Boraginaceae+Tournefortia hirsutissumaCold withFlorida, trop. America, WIShrubColds, cough, fever, nervous trouble, chest pains, stomach-ache
28. BoraginaceaeTournefortia volubilisChigger nutFlorida, Bahamas, C. & S. Amer., WIVineSores, baths, “restore manhood”
29. BrassicaceaeLepidium virginicumWild pepper grassWidely distributedHerbRelieve gas
30. Bromeliaceae+Bromelia pinguinPing wingC. & S. America, WIHerbAbortifacient, dewormer, diuretic, thrush
31. Burseraceae+Bursera simarubaRed birchFlorida, Mexico to Venezuela, WITreeColds, diarrhoea, wounds, diuretic, high blood pressure
32. Cactaceae+Opuntia cochenilliferaTunaWidely cultivatedShrubInflammation, vomiting, fever, headache
33. CaesalpiniaceaeBauhinia divaricataBull hoofHonduras, WI, Grand CaymanShrubBronchitis, sores, liver and kidney ailments
34. Caesalpiniaceae+ Caesalpinia bonducellaGray nickerSubtropics to tropicsShrubKidney trouble, diabetes, fever, high blood pressure, venereal diseases,
convulsions
35. CaesalpiniaceaeCassia alataKing of the forestTropicsShrubEczema, purgative, hypertension, vermifuge
36. CaesalpiniaceaeCassia jamaicensisJamaican broomEndemicShrubGood for bladder, back pain, stomach and shortness of breath
37. Caesalpiniaceae+Cassia ligustriniaPiss a bedFlorida, Bermuda, WI, W. AfricaHerbGood for weak bladder
38. Caesalpiniaceae+Cassia occidentalisDandelion, Stinking weed/ Wild coffeeSubtropics and tropicsHerbColds, kidney and bladder dysfunction, back pain, shortness of breath, dysentery, dropsy
39. Caesalpiniaceae+Haematoxylum campechianumLogwoodTropicsTreeWound dressing, diarrhoea, dysentery
40. CaesalpiniaceaePeltophorum linnaeiBrazillettoYucatan, WITreeNot mentioned
41. Caesalpiniaceae+Tamarindus indicaTamarindSubtropics and tropicsTreeColds, measles, chicken pox, laxative, fever
42. CampanthaceaeHippobroma longifloraMadam fateCaribbean*HerbPoultice used for injury, pain
43. CampanulaceaeLobelia accuminataNo name givenEndemicHerbNot mentioned
44. CampanulaceaeLobelia viridifloraNo name givenEndemicHerbNot mentioned
45. CanellaceaeCinnamodendron corticosumMountain cinnamonEndemicTreeInsecticidal, antimicrobial, anticomplemental cytotoxicity
46. Cannabaceae+Cannibis sativaGanjaWidely distributedHerbAsthma, vision improvement, fever, colds
47. CapparaceaeCleome rutidospermaNo name givenTropicsHerbNot mentioned
48. CapparaceaeCleome viscosaWild caiaTropicsHerbInsecticidal
49. Caricaceae+Carica papayaPapayaWidely cultivatedTreeSores, boils, worms, warts, ringworm
50. Chenopodiaceae+Chenopodium ambrosioidesSemicontractSubtropics and tropicsHerbAntifungal, antihelminthic, vermifuge
51. CombretaceaeTerminalia catappaAlmondWidespreadTreeNot mentioned
52. CommelinaceaeCommelina benghalensisWater grassTropicsHerbThrush, burns, sore throats, strangury
53. CommelinaceaeCommelina diffusaWater grassSubtropics and tropicsHerbCold, malaria, eye lotion, gonorrhoea
54. CompositaeAcanthospermum camphoratumNo name givenNot givenHerbNot mentioned
55. CompositaeAmbrosia hispidaBay tansy, Worm woodFlorida, C. America, WIHerbDewormer
56. CompositaeBidens cyanpiifoliaSpanish needleTr. America, Bahamas, WIHerbFever, stomach problems
57. Compositae+Bidens pilosaSpanish needleTropicsShrubGood for bowels, dewormer, cuts, colic, enema, ear ache
58. Compositae+Bidens reptans var tomentosaMarigoldEndemicVineCold, menstrual problems
59. Compositae+Calea jamaicensisCamphor bushEndemicShrubColds, bellyache
60. Compositae+Chrysanthellum americanumNo name givenTropicsHerbUsed with strong back, for pain
61. Compositae+Elephantopus mollisIron weedSubtropics and tropicsHerbColds, back pain
62. Compositae+Eupatorium odoratumJack in the bushTr. America, W. Africa, MalayaShrubWound dressing, colds, cough, bronchitis
63. Compositae+Eupatorium villosumBitter bushFlorida, Bahamas, WIShrubColds, skin rash, constipation, fever, pain
64. Compositae+Mikania micranthaGuacoTr. America, (other species are endemic)VineSkin itch, athlete’s foot, anti-venom, stomach pain, cold, diarrhoea, dress wounds
65. Compositae+Parthenium hysterophorusDog flea weedSubtropics and tropicsHerbColds, sores, wound dressing, for dog fleas
66. Compositae+Pseudelephantopus spicatusDog tongueTropicsHerbFever, ophthalmic, sprains
67. CompositaeSyndrella nodifloraFatten barrowTropicsHerbCold
68. CompositaeTagetes erecta L.African marigoldNative of MexicoHerbDiscourages whitefly
69. CompositaeTridax procumbensBakenboxSubtropics and tropicsHerbFever, catarrah
70. CompositaeVerbesina spVariousNo range givenVariousNot mentioned
71. CompositaeVernonia acumiataBitter bushEndemicShrubNot mentioned
72. CompositaeVernonia pluvalisNo name givenEndemicShrubColic
73. CompositaeVernonia remotifloraNot in Adams (1)
74. Compositae+Wedelia gracilisConsumption weedGreater Antilles, AntiguaHerbAbortion, fever, sores, colds
75. Compositae+Wedelia trilobataRunning or yellow marigoldTr. America, Hawaii, W. AfricaHerbAbortion, fever, sores, colds
76. Convolvulaceae+Cuscuta americana L.Love weed, dodderSubtropics and tropical Amer.VineAcaricidal, antihelminthic, colic, laxative
77. Convolvulaceae+Evolvulus arbusculaSea thymeBahamas, WIShrubBellyache
78. ConvolvulaceaeIpomea fistulosaMorning gloryWidespreadShrubNot mentioned
79. Crassulaceae+Bryophyllum pinnatumLeaf of lifeTropicsHerbCold, pain, dysmenorrhoea, boils, ulcers, insect bites
80. CruciferaeNasturtium officinaleWater cressCultivated world-wideHerbGood for heart, antiscorbutic, slight stimulant, diuretic, expectorant
81. Cucurbitaceae+Cucurbita pepoField pumpkinCultivated world-wideVineVermifuge, antihelminthic
82. Cucurbitaceae+Fevillea cordifoliaAntidote caccoonTropical America, WIVineDress wounds, emetic, purgative, poison antidote, toxic on ingestion
83. Cucurbitaceae+Momordica charantiaCerasseeSubtropics and tropicsVineColds, fever, sores, menstrual disorder, cures bad blood and gripe, stomach ache
84. Cucurbitaceae+Sechium eduleCho-choTropicsVineHypertension
85. DioscoreaceaeDioscorea polygonoidesWild yamC. & S. trop. America, WIVineAcaricidal
86. DioscoreaceaeDioscorea dumetorumYamTropicsVineNot mentioned
87. EuphorbiaceaeCodiaeum variegatumGarden crotonTropicsShrubNot mentioned
88. EuphorbiaceaeCroton eluteriaCascarillaTropicsShrubStimulant, tonic
89. EuphorbiaceaeCroton flavensYellow balsamYuatan, WIShrubEarache, sore throat, pneumonia
90. Euphorbiaceae+Croton humilisPepper rodFlorida, Bahamas, Mexico, WIShrubVenereal sores, insecticidal
91. Euphorbiaceae+Croton linearisRosemaryFlorida, Bahamas, WIShrubTranquiliser, circulation, insecticidal
92. EuphorbiaceaeCroton lucidasBasket hoopBahamas, WIShrubNot mentioned
93. EuphorbiaceaeCroton spVariousVariousShrb/HerbCold, cough, expectorant, tonic, diarrhoea, ear aches, sore throat, pneumonia, malaria,
rheumatism, hair wash, dandruff, gripe
94. EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia cyathophoraNo name givenTropicsHerbWound, skin ulcer
95. EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia hirtaMilk weedSubtropics and tropicsHerbAnti-hypertensive, diarrhoea, asthma
96. EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia pulcherrimaPoinsettiaWidespreadShrubNot mentioned
97. EuphorbiaceaeHura crepitansSand boxTropicsTreeNot mentioned
98. EuphorbiaceaeJatropha gossypiifoliaBelly-ache bushSubtropics and tropicsShrubPurgative, constipation, belly-ache
99. Euphorbiaceae+Ricinus communisOil nut bush, castor oil plantTropics, cultivated widelyShrubFever, boils, purge, toothache, diuretic, stomach-ache, headache, eye lotion
100. Gesneriaceae+Rytidophyllum tomentosumSearch me heartEndemicShrubGeneral drink, colds
101. Graminae+Bambusa vulgarisBambooWidespread world-wideShrubFevers, malaria
102. GraminaeCymbopogon citratusLemon grass, fever grassTropics, widely cultivatedHerbCold, fever, nervous headache, medicinal oil
103. GraminaeVetivera zizanioidesKhus khusTropics, widely cultivatedHerbInsecticidal
104. GuttiferaeClusia portlandianaNo name givenEndemicTreeNot mentioned
105. Labiatae+Hyptis pectinataPiabaTropicsHerbColds, cuts, sores, headache, tonsilitis,
106. Labiatae+Hyptis verticillataJohn Charles, wild mintFlorida, Mexico to Colombia, WIHerbColds, gout, marasmus, eczema, psoriasis, scabies, athlete’s foot, colic, skin disease, itching, arthritis
107. Labiatae+Leonotis nepetifloraChristmas candle-stickTropicsHerbFever, abortifacient
108. Labiatae+Mentha viridisSpear mintWidespreadHerbChecks vomiting, stomach trouble
109. Labiatae+Ocimum basilicumSweet parsleyTropicsHerbColds, liver ailment, runs mosquitoes
110. Labiatae+Ocimum micranthumBarsleySubtropics and tropicsHerbLaxative for babies, fever, pain, colds
111. Labiatae+Plectranthus amboinicusSoup mint, French thymeTropicsHerbSeasoning, cold remedies
112. Labiatae+Salvia serotina Wild insecticidalChicken weedWI*HerbFever, colic, biliousness, constipation,
113. Labiatae+Satureja browneiPenny royalTropical C. & S. America, WIHerbDiarrhoea, stomach ache
114. Labiatae+Satureja vimineaWild mintCuba, Hispaniola*ShrubIndigestion, flatulence, colic
115. Lauraceae+Cinnamomum zeylanicumCinnamonWidely cultivatedTreeFlavouring, carminative, antiseptic oil
116. Lauraceae+Persea americana Mill.Pear, alligator pearSubtropics and tropicsTreeGood for blood, blood pressure, colds, pains
117. LiliaceaeAloe veraSinkle BibleTropics, widely grownHerbBiliousness, colds, wounds, headaches, purgative, improves appetite, dewormer
118. Logamiaceae+Spigelia anthelmia L.Worm grass, pink weedTropicsHerbAcaricidal, dewormer
119. Loranthaceae+Oryctanthus occidentalisMistletoe, scorn-the-earthEndemicShrubFever, pain, high blood pressure
120. LoranthaceaePhoradendron wattiiNo name givenEndemicShrubNot mentioned
121. Lythraceae+Cuphea parsonsiaStrong backMexico, Bahamas, WIVineMenstrual pains
122. Lythraceae+Punica granatumPomegranateSubtropics and tropics, cultivatedShrubTapeworm, vomiting
123. MalvaceaeAbutilon trisulcatumNo name givenMexico, Bahamas, WIHerbNot mentioned
124. MalvaceaeHibiscus rosa-sinensisDouble hibiscus, shoe-blackTropics, widely grownShrubColds, hernia
125. Malvaceae+Hibiscus sabdariffaSorrelTropics, widely cultivatedShrubCooling, diuretic, antiscorbutic
126. Malvaceae+Sida acutaBroom weedTropicsShrubFever, colic
127. MalvaceaeSida rhombifloraNo name givenSubtropics and tropicsHerbIndigestion, haemorrhoids
128. MalvaceaeThespesia populneaSeaside mahoeTropicsTreeInsecticidal
129. Malvaceae+Urena lobata L.BurmallowTropicsHerbColds, expectorant
130. MeliaceaeAzadirachta indica JussNeemSubtropics and tropicsTreeInsecticidal, fungicidal, nematocidal, medicinal, cosmetics, soaps, toothpaste
131. Meliaceae+Cedrela odorataWest Indian CedarTropicsTreePsoriasis, internal
132. MeliaceaeTrichilia havanensisNo name givenMexico to S. America, WITreeNot mentioned
133. MeliaceaeTrichilia hirta L.Wild mahoganyMexico to Brazil, WITreeNot mentioned
134. Mimosaceae+Mimosa pudica L.Shame mi lady, shame weedTropics, widespreadHerbColds, gonorrhoea, sedative
135. MoraceaeArtocarpus altilis ParkBreadfruitTropicsTreeHigh blood pressure
136. Moraceae heterophyllusArtocarpusJackfruitSubtropics and tropicsTreeNot mentioned
137. Moraceae+Cecropia peltataTrumpet treeMexico to Venezuela, WITreeColds, high blood pressure, sore throat
138. MoraceaeFicus perforata L.Wild figCen. Amer., Bahamas, WITreeNot mentioned
139. MoraceaeTrophis racemosaRamoonMexico to Brazil, WITreeNot mentioned
140. MyoporaceaeBontia daphnoidesKidney bushNrn S. America, WITreeInsecticidal, acaricidal
141. Myristiaceae+Myristica fragransNutmegE. and WI, cultivatedTreeOfficial in pharmacopoeias
142. Myrtaceae robustaEucalyptus spp. egEucalyptusNative of Australo-E. MalaysiaTreeClears the nostrils, colds fever, ulcer dressing, dewormer
143. Myrtaceae+Pimento dioica L.PimentoTropics, some species are endemicTreeStomach aches, menstruation pains, good for blood
144. Myrtaceae+Psidium guajavaGuavaTropics, cultivatedTreeDiarrhoea, dysentery
145. Ochnaceae+Sauvagesia browneiIron shrubCuba, Jamaica*HerbMenstrual pain, weak back, irritation of bladder
146. OleaceaeJasminium fluminenseAzores jasmineTropicsShrubSnake bite antidote
147. Palmae+Cocos nuciferaCoconutWidespread cultivationTreeControls sugar, good for blader, astringent, sores, ulcers, coughs
148. PapaveraceaeBocconia frutescensJohn crow bushC. Amer., Hawaii, WITreePurgative, vermifuge, skin ulcer
149. PapilionaceaeAlysicarpus vaginalisMedinaSubtropics and tropicsHerbAphrodiasiac
150. Papilionaceae+Cajanus cajan L.Gungo peaSubtropics and tropics, cultivatedShrubColds, diarrhoea, mouthwash
151. PapilionaceaeCrotalaria junceaSunnhempTropicsHerbHaemoptysis
152. PapilionaceaeCrotalaria retusaRattle weedSubtropics and tropicsHerbNot mentioned
153. Papilionaceae canum+Desmodium canumSweetheart, var. strongbackTropicsHerbColds, kidney trouble, weak back, tonic, menstrual pain, induces sleep, headache
154. Papilionaceae corallodendrumErythrinaSpanish macheteGr. Cayman, WI*TreeNot mentioned
155. Papilionaceae+Gliricida sepiumQuick stick, Aaron’s rodTropics, widely culti.TreeFever, colds, pain, gonorrhoea
156. PapilionaceaeLonchocarpus latifoliusDogwoodMexico to Brazil, WITreeVermifuge, menstrual cramps
157. Papilionaceae+Piscidia piscipulaDogwoodFlorida, Mexico, Bahamas, WITreeBackache, sedatives, toothache
158. Papilionaceae+Stylosanthes viscosaPoor man’s friendMexico to Brazil, WIHerbColds, kidney trouble
159. Passifloraceae+Passiflora maliformisSweet cupNorthern S. America, WIVineTonic
160. Phytolaccaceae+Petiveria alliaceaGuinea hen weedTropicsShrubFever, antidote to poisoning, headache
161. Phytolaccaceae+Rivina humilisDog blood, inflammation weedTropicsHerbColds, diarrhoea, marasmus
162. PiperaceaePeperomia clusifoliaNo name givenEndemicHerbNot mentioned
163. Piperaceae+Peperomia pellucidaRat ears, pepper elderTropicsHerbFlu, diuretic, hypertension, diarrhoea, cough, convulsions
164. PiperaceaePeperomia proctoriiNo name givenEndemicHerbNot mentioned
165. PiperaceaePiper aduncumNo name givenTropicsTreeFever, pain, wounds, toothache
166. Piperaceae+Piper amalgo var nigrinodumPepper elder, black jointerEndemicShrubFlatulence, constipation, cough, colds, tonic, pain, stomach ache
167. PiperaceaePiper auritumNo common names givenNo range givenShrub
168. PiperaceaeP. betleTropics, cultivatedVineFever, pain, wounds, toothache, colds, asthma, insect repellant, remedies for cold, stomach ache
169. PiperaceaeP. fadyeniiEndemicShrub
170. PiperaceaeP. hispidumWI*Tree
171. Piperaceae+P. murrayanumEndemicTree
172. PiperaceaeP. verrucosumEndemicTree
173. Piperaceae+Pothomorphe umbellateCow footTr. America, W. AfricaHerbColds, headache, boils, tapeworm
174. PolygonaceaeAntigonon leptopusCoralitaTropicsVineCough, throat constriction
175. PolygonaceaeCoccoloba krugiiNo name givenBahamas, WITreeNot mentioned
176. PolypodiaceaeCycloptis semicordataTall fernTropics, widespreadHerbAcaricidal
177. PolypodiaceaeLastrepsis effusa (Sw.) TindaleFine fernTropics, widespreadHerbNot mentioned
178. Portulacaceae+Portulaca oleraceaJump up & kiss me, purslaneSubtropics and tropicsHerbHeart tonic, cooling, diuretic
179. Rhamnaceae+Gouania lupuloidesChew stickFlorida, Bahamas, WIVineToothbrush, stimulates appetite, dropsy
180. RhizophoraceaeRhizophora mangleRed mangroveTropical coastsTreeModerately insecticidal
181. RubiaceaeCoffea libericaLiberian coffeeTropicsShrubNot mentioned
182. Rubiaceae+Borreria laevisButton weedSubtropics and tropicsHerbColds, fever, constipation
183. Rubiaceae+Morinda royocStrong backCentral Amer.ShrubTonic, aphrodisiac
184. RutaceaeAmyris plumieriCandle woodCentral Amer.ShrubNot mentioned
185. Rutaceae+Citrus aurantifoliaLimeTropicsTreeColds, stomach ache, insomnia, ringworm, ulcer, fever, sore throat, wounds, eye disease
186. Rutaceae+Citrus aurantiumSeville orangeTropicsTreeCold, stomach aches, bitter tonic, sore throat, rheumatism
187. RutaceaeCitrus reticulataTangerineTropicsTreeNot mentioned
188. RutaceaeFagara elephantiasisYellow sandersMexico, Costa Rica, WITreeNot mentioned
189. RutaceaeFagara martinicensisBitter bush/ prickly yellowNrthn S. America, WITreeCarminative, astringent, diuretic, ulcer, rheumatism
190. RutaceaeMurraya koenigiiNo name givenNot in Adams (1)ShrubAntifungal, diabetes, flavouring
191. RutaceaeMurraya paniculataSweet neem, prickly yellowTropicsTreeDiarrhoea, wound dressing
192. RutaceaeSpathelia glabrescensNo name givenEndemicTreeNot mentioned
193. RutaceaeSpathelia sorbifoliaMountain prideEndemicTreeNot mentioned
194. Sapindaceae+Blighia sapidaAckeeWI, W. AfricaTreeColds, pain, acaricidal, insecticidal
195. SapindaceaeMelicoccus bijugatusGuinep, GuineapeaTropicsTreeHypertension, fever, cough
196. SapotaceaeChrysophyllum cainitoStar appleTropicsTreeNot mentioned
197. Sapotaceae+Manilkara zapotaNaseberryVenezuela, WITreeNerve tonic
198. ScrophulariaceaeCapraria bifloraGoat weedSubtropics and tropicsHerbFever, influenza, indigestion
199. SimaroubaceaeAlvaradoa jamaicensisNo name givenEndemicTreeNot mentioned
200. Simaroubaceae+Picrasma excelsaBitter woodGreater AntillesTreeDewormer, tonic, thread worm, malaria, appetite stimulant, insecticide
201. SimaroubaceaeSimarouba glauca DCBitter damson, bitter woodFlorida, C. Amer., WI, BahamasTreeMalaria, diarrhoea, insecticidal, acaricidal
202. Smilacaceae+Smilax balbisianaChainy rootCuba, Hispaniola*VineTonic, general pain
203. Smilacaceae+Smilax regeliiJamaican sarsaparillaWidely distributedVine
204. Solanaceae+Capsicum annumSweet pepperTropicsShrubStimulant, rheumatism, dysentery, yaws,
205. Solanaceae+Capsicum baccatumScotch bonnetTropicsShrubfever, lotion for ringworm of scalp, wounds,
206. Solanaceae+Capsicum frutescensBird pepperSubtropics and tropicsShrubsores, boils, influenza, mouthwash, dewormer
207. Solanaceae+Datura stramoniumTora apple, jimson weedSubtropics and tropicsHerbAsthma, burns, ulcers, sinus infection, headaches, sores
208. Solanaceae+Nicotiana tabacum L.TobaccoSubtropics and tropicsHerbToothache
209. Solanaceae+Solanum torvumSusumberTropicsShrubFlu, colds, vermifuge, opens appetite
210. Sterculiaceae+Cola acuminataBissyTropicsTreeStomach pain, purge, dysentery, tonic, cuts, wounds, allays hunger
211. Sterculiaceae+Guazuma ulmifoliaBastard cedarTropicsTreeCuts and sores
212. Turneraceae+Turnera ulmifoliaRamgoat dash-a-longC. America, WIHerbColds, debility, abortion, fever, prickly heat, constipation
213. Umbelliferae+ Eryngium foetidumSpirit weedTr. America, WI, W. AfricaHerbColds, fits, convulsions, fainting, ulcers, headaches
214. Umbelliferae+Foeniculum vulagareFennel, aniseedWidely cultivatedHerbCold
215. Urticaceae+Pilea microphylla var microphyllaBaby puzzleEndemicHerbDiarrhoea, asthma
216. Urticaceae+Pilea microphylla var trianthemoideArtillery plantWIHerbDiarrhoea, asthma
217. VerbenaceaeClerodendrumLady Nugent roseTropicsShrubHeadache
218. Verbenaceae+Lantana camaraWhite sageTropics, widespreadShrubGonorrhoea, measles, chicken pox, wound dressing, coughs
219. Verbenaceae+Lantana involucrataWild mintFlorida, WI, Galapagos IlsShrubCold, fever, astringent, aromatic
220. Verbenaceae+Lantana trifoliaWild sageTr. America, W. AfricaShrubConstipation, good for blood, night sweats
221. VerbenaceaeLantana urticifoliaBlack sageWI, Gr. Cayman*ShrubIndigestion, menstruation, tightness of chest
222. Verbenaceae+Lippia albaColic mintTexas, Mexico to Argentina, WIShrubChecks vomiting, indigestion, flatulence
223. VerbenaceaePetrea volubilisPurple wreathTropicsVineAbortifacient
224. Verbenaceae+Priva lappulaceaClammy burSubtropics and tropicsHerbAbortifacient, colds
225. Verbenaceae+Stachytarpheta jamaicensisVervineFlorida, Bahamas, C. America, WIHerbEczema, colds, worms, gonorrhoea, eye disorders, sores
226. Zingiberaceae+Zingiber officinaleGinger WildWidely distributed, cultivatedHerbCarminative, digestive stimulant, wounds, fever, toothache
227. Acanthaceae+Andrographis paniculataWild rice, rice bittersWidespreadHerbFever, colds, malaria, bitter stomachic, diabetes, antihelminthic
228. Acanthaceae+Blechum pyramidatumJohn bushTr. America, PacificShrubBaths, sore feet, colds
229. Amaranthaceae+Amaranthus sp.CallalooTropicsHerbGood for bowels, poultice for boils
230. Amaranthaceae+Chamissoa altissmaBasket witheTr. America, WIVineSimilar use as callaloo
231. Amaranthaceae+Iresine diffusaJuba’s bushTropicsShrubColds, pain in bowels, colic
232. Amaryllidaceae+Hippeastrum puniceumMaroon lilyTropicsHerbSwellings, sores
233. Anacardiaceae+Spondias purpureaJamaican plumTropicsTreeColds, skin diseases, gum infection, dysentery
234. Apocynaceae+Echites umbellataSavannah flowerFlorida, Mexico, WIHerbPoultice for sore leg
235. Araceae+Colocasia esculentaDasheenWidely cultivatedHerbBiliousness, asthma, consumption, laxative
236. Asclepiadaceae+Asclepias niveaWhite headAmerican tropicsShrubVermifuge, stops bleeding, boils
237. Asclepiadaceae+Funastrum clausumMilk witheNo range givenVineCold remedy
238. Boraginaceae+Cordia jamaicensisBlack sageEndemicShrubColds, indigestion, high blood pressure
239. Boraginaceae+Heliotropium indicumScorpion weedPantropical, Gr. CaymanHerbDiuretic, sores, ulcers, fevers, skin complaints, head lice, insect bites
240. Caesalpiniaceae+Caesalpinia coriariaLibi-libiVenezuela, Columbia, WITreeSore throat, stomach-ache, tonic
241. Caesalpiniaceae+Cassia fistulaCassia stickNative of tropical AsiaTreeLaxative, purgative, malaria, gout, dysentery, rheumatism, diuretic
242. Caesalpiniaceae+Cassia italicaJamaica sennaWidely culti.HerbCathartic, dressing for burns, ulcers
243. Campanulaceae+Hippobroma longifloraHorse poisonTr. America, WI, PacificHerbPain, colds. Can be poisonous
244. Canellaceae+Canella winteranaWild cinnamonFlorida, Bahamas, WIShrubPain, spice, aromatic bitter, stimulant, gout, dysentery, syphilis
245. Caprifoliaceae+Sambucus simpsoniiElderS.E. USA, C. AmericaTreeColds, coughs, fevers, constipation, ringworm
246. Commelinaceae+Commelina elegansWater grassTropical AmericaHerbColds, malaria, eye lotion, gonorrhoea
247. Commelinaceae+Zebrina pedulaWandering JewSubtropics and TropicsHerbColds, high blood pressure, consumption
248. Compositae+Artemisia sp.Garden bittersWidespreadHerbStomach ache, constipation, dewormer
249. Compositae+Chaptalia nutansDandelionTropicsHerbDiuretic, colds, constipation, wounds, boils
250. Compositae+Clibadium surinamenseJackass breadnutC. and S. America, WIShrubCold remedy
251. Compositae+Conyza bonariensisAsthma weedSubtropics and tropicsHerbAsthma
252. Compositae+Conyza canadensisDead weedWidely naturalizedHerbDiarrhoea, dropsy, skin disease, sore throat
253. Compositae+Emilia sonchifoliaConsumption weedTropicsHerbColds, cough, sore eye
254. Compositae+Erigeron karvinskyanusRockside daisyMexico to Venezuela, WIHerbColds
255. Compositae+Eupatorium macrophyllumHemp agrimonyMexico to Paraguay, WIHerbColds, coughs
256. Compositae+Eupatorium tristeBitter bushEndemicShrubNot mentioned
257. Compositae+Neurolaena lobataCow gall bitterTr. AmericaHerbColds, stomach disorders, bitter, sores, diuretic, ulcers, consumption
258. Compositae+Pectis sp.Stink weedWI*HerbFever
259. Compositae+Pluchea odorataWild tobaccoS.E. USA, C. America, WIHerbSores, for labour pains, antidote, stomachic
260. Compositae+Senecio discolorWhite-backEndemicShrubColds, fever
261. Compositae+Vernonia divaricataBitter bushJamaica, Gr. Cayman*ShrubColic, fever, biliousness. Some toxic
262. Convolvulaceae+Ipomoea jamaicensisWild potato slipEndemicVinePurge to remove worms
263. Convolvulaceae+Merremia dissectaKnow you?VineCathartic
264. Cucurbitaceae+Citrullus lanatusWatermelonWidely cultivatedVineCooling, fever, diuretic, vermifuge
265. Cucurbitaceae+Cucumis sativusCucumberWidely cultivatedVineCooling, antihelminthic
266. Cyperaceae+Cyperus articulatusAdrueSubtropics and tropicsHerbVomiting, diarrhoea, stimulant, toothache, headache, bowel pain
267. Euphorbiaceae+Acalypha wilkesianaCopper leafNative of Pacific IslandsTree
268. Euphorbiaceae+Alchornea latifoliaDove woodMexico to Panama, WITreeToothache cure, pain
269. Euphorbiaceae+Croton wilsoniWild camphorEndemicHerbColds
270. Euphorbiaceae+Euphorbia glomeriferaMilk weedTropicsHerbColds, indigestion, latex as dressing for cuts, juice removes warts, high blood
271. Euphorbiaceae+Euphorbia hyssopifloraMilk weedTropicsHerbpressure, back pains, tonic, diarrhoea, gonorrhoea
272. Euphorbiaceae+Euphorbia lasiocarpaMilk weedMexico to Peru, WIHerb
273. Euphorbiaceae+Euphorbia prostrataMilk weedSubtropics and tropicsHerb
274. Euphorbiaceae+Euphorbia thymifoliaEyebrightSubtropics and tropicsHerbVermifuge, astringent, laxatives, colds, cuts
275. Euphorbiaceae+Jatropha curcasPhysic nutWidespreadTreePurgative
276. Euphorbiaceae+Manihot esculentaCassavaWidely cultivatedShrubPoultice for sores
277. Euphorbiaceae+Phyllanthus amarusCarry-me-seedWidespreadShrubFevers, genito-urinary infections, malaria, gonorrhoea, dysentery, diabetes, jaundice,
stomach-ache
278. Filicineae+Adiantum tenerumMaidenhead fernNo range givenHerbColds, good for heart
279. Filicineae+Dryopteris sp. eg D. denticulateWhite stickNo range givenHerbColds
280. Filicineae+Polypodium exiguumHug-me-tightNo range givenHerbBath for ‘female weakness’
281. Filicineae+Polypodium phyllitidisCow tongueNo range givenHerbCold, febrifuge, astringent
282. Graminae+Cenchrus spp. eg C. pauciflorusBurr grassTropicsHerbFever, colds, vomiting
283. Graminae+Cynodon dactylonBermuda grassTropicsHerbTea good for kidneys, indigestion, wounds
284. Graminae+Panicum maximumGuinea grassWidespread in tropicsHerbFevers
285. Graminae+Saccharum officinarumSugar-caneWidely cultivatedHerbBeverage
286. Labiatae+Hyptis capitataIron wortTropicsHerbColds, constipation, asthma, wounds, ulcers, gargle
287. Labiatae+Hyptis suaveolensSpikenardTropicsHerbNervous and visceral disorders, stomach ache, colic, fever
288. Labiatae+Salvia occidentalisField basilTr. AmericaHerbOphthalmia, amenorrhoea
289. Lauraceae+Cinnamomum camphoraCamphorIntroduced, native of AsiaTreeHeadache, fever, pain, high blood pressure
290. Liliaceae+Allium sativumGarlicWidely cultivatedHerbWell-known medicinal - expectorant, diuretic, asthma, skin disease, rheumatism
291. Loranthaceae+Dendropemon pauciflorusMistletoeEndemicParasiticFever, pain, high blood pressure
292. Malvaceae+Gossypium spp. eg G. hirsutumCottonWidely cultivatedShrubColds, dysentery, diarrhoea, insect bite
293. Malvaceae+Hibiscus elatusBlue mahoeNative of Cuba, JamaicaTreeDysentery, colds
294. Malvaceae+Kosteletzkya pentaspermaNo name givenMexico to Venezuela, WIHerbDressing for cuts
295. Malvaceae+Malachra alceifoliaWild ochraMexico to Peru, WIHerbColds, fever
296. Malvaceae+Malvastrum coromandelianumMallowSubtropics and tropicsHerbStomach pain
297. Malvaceae+Sida urensWind bushSubtropics and tropicsShrubGripe
298. Marantaceae+Maranta arundinaceaeArrowrootWidely cultivatedHerbDiarrhoea, antidote for spider bites etc, dysentery
299. Melastomaceae+Clidemia hirtaSoap bushTropicsHerbTea
300. Melastomaceae+Miconia laevigataJonny berryMexico to S. America, WIHerbSores, itch, bush bath
301. Meliaceae+Swietenia mahogoniMahoganyWidespread in tropicsTreeAstringent, diarrhoea, bitter, febrifuge
302. Menispermaceae+Cissampelos pareiraVelvet leafTropicsVineColds, bitter tonic, diuretic, skin diseases, sores, gonorrhoea
303. Moringaceae+Moringa oleiferaBen nut treeSubtropics and tropicsTreePromotes digestion and appetite, pain, headache
304. Musaceae+Musa spp. eg. M. sapientumBanana, plantainWidely cultivatedHerbStomach sourness, cooling astringent
305. Myrtaceae+Pimenta jamaicensisWild pimentoEndemicTreeColds, fever, diarrhoea, perfume
306. Nyctaginaceae+Commicarpus scandensRat earsNo range givenHerbColds
307. Nyctaginaceae+Mirabilis jalapaFour o’clockSubtropics and tropicsHerbColds, fever, laxative
308. Oxalidaceae+Oxalis corniculataYellow sorrelTropicsHerbCooling, febrifuge, antiscorbutic, stomachic
309. Papaveraceae+Argemone mexicanaMexican poppyTropicsHerbColds, eye disease, diarrhoea, dysentery
310. Papilionaceae+Abrus precatoriusRed bead vineSubtropics and tropicsVineColds, emetic, purgative, antihelminthic, constipation, fever. Toxic before cooking
311. Papilionaceae+Andira inermisCabbage barkTr. America, W. AfricaTreeDewormer, wounds. Dangerous in large doses
312. Papilionaceae+Desmodium axillareWild pinderTr. America, WIHerbBack pain, flush out poison from kidneys, acne
313. Papilionaceae+Desmodium procumbensPinderTropicsHerb
314. Papilionaceae+Moghania strobiliferaWild hopsE. Indies, WIShrubFever
315. Papilionaceae+Stylosanthes hamataDonkey weedTr. AmericaHerbColds, kidney trouble, aphrodaisiac
316. Passifloraceae+Passiflora foetidaLove-in-a-mistTropicsVineGood for kidneys
317. Passifloraceae+Passiflora rubraGoat hoofFlorida, Mexico, WIVineColds
318. Passifloraceae+Passiflora sexfloraGoat footFlorida, Mexico, WIVineColds, sores, stiff neck
319. Plantaginaceae+Plantago majorEnglish plaintainCommonHerbEye lotion, dressing for ulcer, sores, wounds
320. Rubiaceae+Borreria verticillataButton WeedTr. America, Tr. AfricaHerbConstipation, fever
321. Simaroubaceae+Picramnia antidesmaMajoe bittersC. America, WIShrubTeething, yaws, veneral disease, colic, fevers, skin ulcers
322. Solanaceae+Physalis angulataWinter cherrySubtropics and tropicsHerbGonorrhoea, ophthalmia
323. Solanaceae+Solanum ciliatumCockroach poisonTropicsHerbCoughs, ringworm, dysmenrrhoea, constipation
324. Solanaceae+Solanum mammosumBachelor’s pearSubtr. and tropical AmericaShrubColds, cough
325. Solanaceae+Solanum americanumBlack nightshadeSubtr. and tropical AmericaHerbGood for blood, mouth sores, inflammation, ringworm
326. Sterculiaceae+Helicteres jamaicensisScrew treeBahamas, WI*TreeCoughs, biliousness, emetic, fever, tuberculosis
327. Sterculiaceae+Melochia tomentosaTea bushSubtr.and tropical AmericaShrubColds
328. Sterculiaceae+Waltheria indicaRaichieSubtropics and tropicsHerbColds, abortion, haemorrhage, coughs, restorative, syphilis
329. Tilliaceae+Corchorus siliquosusSlippery burTrop. America, WIHerbColds, asthma
330. Tilliaceae+Triumfetta sloaneiBur weedEndemicHerbChecks bleeding, heals cuts
331. Vitaceae+Cissus sicyoidesSnake witheTrop. America, WIVineColds, boils, back pain, gonorrhoea, rheumatism
332. Vitaceae+Cissus trifoliateSorrel vineVineColds, sores, boils, ulcer
333. Zygophyllaceae+Guaiacum officinaleLignum vitaeTropics, widespreadTreeSore throat, fevers, gargle, bellyache, cuts, biliousness, venereal disease, gout, rheumatism
334. Zygophyllaceae+Tribulus cistoidesKingston buttercupTropicsHerbColds, malaria, kidney and bladder infection

Table 6: ‘Medicinal’ plants of Jamaica studied at the Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona – Research conducted between 1948 and 2001, and literature reference

PRN and Botanical nameCommon nameResearch reported by December 2001Literature reference
1. Asystasia gangetica?Active against S. aureus+++45
2. Justicia pectoralisFresh cutNo effect on 5 bacteria; no effect on B. microplus; Crude extract (CE) significantly increased clotting time; a coumarin isolated decreased
inflammation, increased wound healing but not coagulation
14, 45, 91, 92, 93, 94
3. Achyranthes indicaDevil’s horse whipNo effect on 5 bacteria, little antihelminthic activity; cardiovascular and antiarrhythmic effects.45, 57
4. Allium cepaOnionLow antihelminthic potential (Strongyloides stercoralis)44
5. Anacardium occidentaleCashewCE killed 7% T. confusum larvae; bark extract hypoglycaemic, induced hypotension in dogs; aqueous soln used in treatment of diabetes mellitus3, 16, 93, 57
6. Mangifera indica L.MangoCE killed 23% T. confusum, active against S. aureus+16, 45
7. Spondias dulcisJune plumHas hypoglycaemic effect but activity is short-lived3
8. Spondias mombinHog plumListed but not tested93
9. Anonna muricataSoursopNo effect on 5 bacteria, no effect on S. stercoralis; alcoholic extract of ripe fruit decreases motor activity, has sedative action; low activity against
B. mcroplus
44, 45, 93, 95-100
10. Annona reticulata L.Custard appleCE killed 67% T. confusum larvae16
11. Annona squamosaSweetsopNo effect on 5 bacteria, low antihelmintic activity against S. stercoralis45, 98
12. Catharanthus roseusPeriwinkleActive against B. microplus (66AI), no effect on 5 bacteria; CE is an effective hypoglycaemic agent; vinblastine and vincristine isolated -
these are now used to treat leukaemia
3, 14, 45, 57, 93, 101,102
13. Ervatamia divaricataCoffee roseCE killed 17% T. confusum, very active against B. microplus (82AI), CE toxic against C. formicarius 48hr Ld95 0.83 µg/insect14, 16, 103, 104
14. Nerium oleander L.OleanderActive against B. microplus (47AI).14
15. Oreopanax capitatusWoman woodCE killed 20% T. confusum, active against B. microplus (40AI)14, 16
16. Polyscias guilfoyleiAraliaListed but not tested93
17. Asclepias curassavicaRed topNo activity on 5 bacteria, some activty against B. microplus (22AI)14, 45
18. Catalpa longissimaFrench oakNo activity on 5 bacteria45
19. Crescentia cujeteCalabashNo effect on T. confusum16
20. Tecoma stansYellow cedarNo activity on 5 bacteria, CE killed 17% T. confusum.16, 45
21. Bixa orellanaAnnattoCE killed 13% T. confusum, some activity against B. microplus (38AI); CE is an effective hypoglycaemic agent, isolated trans-bixin is
hyperglycaemic, results suggest an effect at the level of receptor sites
3, 14, 16, 102, 105
22. Cordia browneiBlack sageActive against S. aureus++ and P. mirabilis+45
23. Cordia globosaSageListed but not tested.93
24. Cordia sebestenaGeiger treeNo activity on 5 bacteria.45
25. Heliotropium angiospermumPink sageListed but not tested93
26. Symphytum officinaleComfreyNo activity on 5 bacteria, very active against B. microplus (99AI); has hypoglycaemic effect but activity is short-lived3, 14, 45
27. Tournefortia hirsutissumaCold witheListed but not tested93
28. Tournefortia volubilisChigger nutNo activity on 5 bacteria45
29. Lepidium virginicumWild pepper grassNo activity on 5 bacteria45
30. Bromelia pinguinPing wingExtract may have an utero-active compound which inhibits uterine mobility106
31. Buresera simarubaRed birchNo effect on T. confusum16
32. Opuntia cochenilliferaTunaListed but not tested93
33. Bauhinia divaricataBull hoofNo activity on 5 bacteria45
34. Caesalpinia bonducellaGray nickerNew furanoditerpene Caesalpine F isolated but bioactivity not determined107
35. Cassia alataKing of the forestNo activity on 5 bacteria; has hypoglycaemic effect but activity is short-lived3, 45, 93
36. Cassia jamaicensisJamaican broomActive against S. aureus+++ and P. mirabilis+45
37. Cassia ligustriniaPiss a bedListed but not tested93
38. Cassia occidentalisDandelionNo activity on 5 bacteria; CE killed 20% T. confusum, not very active against B. microplus (7AI)14, 16, 45, 93
39. Haematoxylum campechianumLogwoodActive against S. aureus++ and P. mirabilis+, no effect on T. confusum, active against B. microplus (46AI)14, 16, 45
40. Peltophorum linnaeiBrazillettoCE killed 13% T. confusum16
41. Tamarindus indicaTamarindNo effect on 5 bacteria, good antihelminthic potential against S. stercoralis45, 98
42. Hippobroma longifloraMadam fateNo effect on B. microplus, active against S. aureus+14, 45
43. Lobelia accuminataNo name givenNo effect on 5 bacteria45
44. Lobelia viridifloraNo name givenNo effect on 5 bacteria45
45. Cinnamodendron corticosumMountain cinnamonIsolated 4 drimane sesquiterpenoids and a sesquiterpene, these had antimicrobial, anticancer and mosquitocidal activity15
46. Cannibis sativaGanjaNo effect on 5 bacteria, active against B. microplus (58AI), found new chemical called cannabitriol, canasol effects eye, glaucoma; has
hypoglycaemic effect but activity is short-lived
3, 14, 45, 57, 93, 108-111
47. Cleome rutidospermaNo name givenNo effect on 5 bacteria45,112
48. Cleome viscoseWild caiaActive against Streptoccocus A+; CLV, a novel diterpene cleomolide was isolated and had insecticidal activity, CE tested pharmacologically45, 112-115
49. Carica papayaPapayaA questionnaire given indicated that green papaya is being used as a topical ulcer dressing (by 75% of nurses in 3 Jamaican hospitals) - advantages and
disadvantages of treatment and recommendations given; no effect on
S. stercoralis
44, 98, 99, 116
50. Chenopodium ambrosioidesSemicontractLow antihelminthic activity93, 98
51. Terminalia catappaAlmondLow activity against B. microplus93,100
52. Commelina benghalensisWater grassNo effect on 5 bacteria45
53. Commelina diffusaWater grassListed but not tested93
54. Acanthospermum camphoratumNo name givenFlavanoids and heliangolide isolated117
55. Ambrosia hispidaBay tansySome antihelminthic potential against S. stercoralis (LT50 of 54.7 hrs)44, 98, 99
56. Bidens cyanpiifoliaSpanish needleNo effect on 5 bacteria45
57. Bidens pilosaSpanish needleSome activity against S. stercoralis (LT50 of 45.7 hrs)44, 93, 98, 99
58. Bidens reptans var tomentosaMarigoldListed not tested93
59. Calea jamaicensisCamphor bushListed but not tested93
60. Calea americanum?Listed but not tested93
61. Elephantopus mollisIron weedListed but not tested93
62. Eupatorium odoratumJack-in-the-bushActive against S. aureus++, CE killed 60% T. confusum, active against B. microplus (44AI)14, 16 ,45, 93
63. Eupatorium villosiumBitter bushActive against S. aureus++, low activity against B. microplus14, 45
64. Mikania micranthaGuacoActive against E. coli+, S. aureus+++ and Streptococcus A+; has hypoglycaemic effec but activity is short-lived3, 45
65. Parthenium hysterophorusDog flea weedActive against S. aureus+45
66. Pseudelephantopus spicatusDog tongueActive against Streptococcus A+45
67. Syndrella nodifloraFatten barrowNo effect on 5 bacteria45
68. Tagetes erecta L.African marigoldCE killed 17% T. confusum16
69. Tridax procumbensBakenboxNo effect on 5 bacteria45
70. Verbesina sp.severalThesis not found118
71. Vernonia acumiataBitter bushCE killed 23% T. confusum16
72. Vernonia pluvalis?Active against S. aureus++ and Streptococcus A+45
73. Vernonia remotiflora?Tricin isolated but not tested for bioactivity119
74. Wedelia gracilisConsumption weedCE no effect on T. confusum16
75. Wedelia trilobata T. confusumYellow marigoldNo effect on 5 bacteria, active against B. microplus (42AI); no effect of14, 16, 45
76. Cuscuta americanaDodder, love weedCE inactivated Strongyloides stercoralis larvae - It95 in 2.2 hours (very high antihelminthic potential - LT50 of 41.8 hrs), CE killed 100%
T. confusum, active against B. microplus (61AI)
14, 16, 98, 99, 104, 120,121
77. Evolvulus arbusculaSea thymeNo effect on 5 bacteria45
78. Ipomea fistulosaMorning gloryCE killed 17% T. confusum16
79. Bryophyllum pinnatumLeaf-of-lifeNo effect on 5 bacteria45, 93
80. Nasturtium officinaleWater cressListed but not tested91
81. Cucurbita pepoField pumpkinLow antihelminthic potential (LT50 80.8 hrs) against S. stercoralis98, 99
82. Fevillea cordifoliaAntidote caccoonIsolated 6 novel cucurbitacin - including a pentacyclic triterpene, cordifolin A - bioactivity not tested122, 123, 124
83. Momordica charantiaCerasseeActive against S. aureus+ and Streptococcus A++, active against B. microplus (71AI); anti-growth properties, leukaemic patient showed increased
haemoglobin content
14, 45, 93, 125
84. Sechium eduleCho-choAntihypertensive effect of water soluble CE, decreased mean arterial blood pressure93,126
85. Dioscorea polygonoidesWild yamCE killed 100% T. confusum, active against B. microplus (56AI)14, 16, 95, 96
86. Dioscorea dumetorumYamIsolated steroidal sapogenin, bioactivity not tested127
87. Codiaeum variegatumGarden crotonListed but not tested93
88. Croton eluteriaCascarillaNo effect on 5 bacteria45
89. Croton flavensYellow balsamNo effect on 5 bacteria; alkaloids isolated45,128
90. Croton humilisNo name givenPeptides isolated; alkaloids isolated128,129
91. Croton linearisRosemaryNo effect on 5 bacteria, killed 37% T. confusum; isolated insecticdal diterpene was lethal to Cylas formicus (72hr LD50 of 0.32 µg/insect)16, 45, 128, 130
92. Croton lucidasBasket hoopTerpenes isolated131
93. Croton sp. Including above sp, C. corytifolius,
C. discolor, C. lobatus,
C. nitens, C. plumieri,
C. trinitatis and C. wilsonii
VariousMorphinandienones and proporphines isolated; absolute stereochemistry of crotonitenone (progenitor of natural products having biological activity)
elucidated; alkaloids and diterpenes isolated; isolated crotonosine
and romifoliol
128, 132-141
94. Euphorbia cyathophoraNo name givenActive against S. aureus45
95. Euphorbia hirtaMilk weedAngiotensin converting enzyme inhibiting and anti-dipsogenic activity142
96. Euphorbia pulcherrimaPoinsettiaCE killed 17% T. confusum16
97. Hura crepitansSand boxListed but not tested93
98. Jatropha gossypiifoliaBelly-ache bushInhibitory action in animal tumour in vitro systems. Isolated jatrophone, a macrocyclic diterpene used clinically as an anti-leukaemic agent128
99. Ricinus communisCastor oilNo effect on 5 bacteria, very active against B. microplus (82AI); low antihelminthic activity against S. stercoralis14, 45, 93, 98
100. Rytidophyllum tomentosumSearch me heartActive against S. aureus+++ and Streptococcus+, low antihelminthic activity45
101. Bambusa vulgarisBambooListed but not tested93
102. Cymbopogon citrausLemon grassRelatively active against Cylas formicarius and inhibited oogenesis of B. microplus93,100
103. Vetivera zizanioidesKhus khusNo effect on T. confusum16
104. Clusia spp?New isoprenylated derivatives (C. portlandana), new benzopyran derivative (C. plukenetti)143, 144, 145
105. Hyptis pectinataPiabaNo effect on 5 bacteria (H. suaveolus had relatively low acaricidal activity against B. microplus)45,100
106. Hyptis verticillataJohn CharlesReisolated 4’-demethyldesoxypodo-phyllotoxin and other phyllotoxin having potential as anti-cancer agents; an isolated sesquiterpene
(cadina-4,10(15)-dien-3-one) disrupted oviposition, hatching, not lethal to
adult B. microplus but was toxic to Cylas formicarius (90% mortality after
48 hour at 3.6 mg/g insect), CE active against Streptococcus Group A, B and
D; isolated a flavonol with antitumour and antimicrobial activity and an
inhibitor of aldose reductase
45, 46, 50, 93, 146
107. Leonotis nepetifloraChristmas candlestickNo effect on 5 bacteria45
108. Mentha viridisMintListed but not tested93
109. Ocimum basilicumSweet parsleyNo effect on 5 bacteria; CE active against Streptococcus Group A, B and D, Staphylococcus epidermis and S. aureus at 130 µg/mL45, 46
110. Ocimum micranthumWild parsleyCE killed 7% T. confusum, active against B. microplus (76AI); CE active against Streptococcus Group A, B and D, Staphylococcus epidermis and
S. aureus at 130 µg/mL
14, 16, 46, 93
111. Plectranthus amboinicusSoup mintNo effect on B. microplus14
112. Salvia serotinaChicken weedCE had low antihelminthic potential - inactivated S. stercoralis larvae It50 in 20 hrs but still higher than thiabendazole and albendazole; very active against
B. microplus (80AI)
14, 120, 121
113. Satureja browneiPenny royalListed but not tested93
114. Satureja vimineaPeppermintListed but not tested93
115. Cinnamomum zeylaniumCinnamonListed but not tested93
116. Persea americanaAlligator pearCE killed 27% T. confusum16, 93
117. Aloe veraSinkle bibleListed but not tested93
118. Spigelia anthelmiaWorm grassCE active against B. microplus (75AI)14
119. Oryctanthus occidentalisScorn-the-earthIncreases blood pressure, isolated oleaname triterpene; CE showed hypertensive activiy, decoction increased blood pressure at high doses
in dogs.
91, 93
120. Phoradendron wattiiNo name givenPharmacological testing; CE had pressor activity, isolated tyramine71
121. Cuphea parsonsiaStrong backActive against S. aureus++45, 93
122. Punica granatumPomegranateListed but not tested93
123. Abutilon trisulcatumNo name givenIsolated choline, this improved short-term memory in rats147
124. Hibiscus rosa-sinensisDouble hibiscus, shoe blackNo effect on 5 bacteria; CE killed 67% T. confusum, very active against B. microplus (93AI) - lethal dose was 0.22 µL/tick for TOAc fraction,
bioactivity dropped on purification
14, 16, 45, 95, 96, 148, 149, 150
125. Hibiscus sabdariffaSorrelWhite sorrel resistent to M. incognito and R. reniformis, white and red sorrel soil admendments suppressed nematode numbers53
126. Sida acutaBroom weedCE killed 30% T. confusum, some activity against B. microplus (47AI)14, 16, 45
127. Sida rhombiflora?No effect on 5 bacteria45
128. Thespesia populneaSeaside mahoeCE killed 27% T. confusum16
129. Urena lobata L.BurmallowActive against B. microplus (43AI)14
130. Azadirachta indicaNeemCE from seeds active against human pathogenic fungi: MIC (µg/ml) were Fonsecaea pedrosoi (4.0), Petrellidium boydii (5.0), Trichophyton
mantagraphytis (8.0), Microsporum gypeseum (30.5), Candida krusei
(48.7), Rhizopus sp. (50.8) - these results are similar to commercial
antifungal agents; CE killed 53% T. confusum; active against B. microplus
(68AI); CE toxic against C. formicarius (48hr Ld95 0.53 µg/insect), CE active
against Hypothenemus hampei in lab and field, killed Plutella xylostella and
Oomyzus sokolowakii; 2% neem oil active against Salmonella, Staphylococcus,
Streptococcus, E. coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella; low activity
against S. stercoralis; decreased spontaneous motor activity in rats, antifertility
effects, physiological actions in rats; some biopesticide formulations of neem
were active against C. formicarius - inhibited feeding by 26-80% in lab; trees
treated were avoided in greenhouse; formulations Ashima I&II and companion
crops reduced damage from cabbage pests; formulations killed Exophthalmus
vittatus by 12.5-44% and inhibited embryogenesis by 20-60%; formulations
stopped post-harvest rot in yams, decreased bacterial load on floors of food
processing plant; neem plants micropropagated; Neem weakly toxic to lab
animals (LD50 6760 and 8709 mg/kg for mice and rats)
14, 48, 84, 85, 86, 95, 96, 98, 99, 100,
103, 104, 151-163
131. Cedrela odorataCedarCE killed 17% T. confusum, oil controlled C. formicarius (Ld50 0.625 µg/insect) - efficacy decreased after 3 hrs; isolated photogedunin,
tetracyclictriterpenoids, odoratol, odoratone, isodoralol,
tetranortriterpenoids, methyl anglensate, gedunin, deacetyl-7-ketogedunin
16, 164 - 169
132. Trichilia havanensis?Triterpenoids isolated170
133. Trichilia hirta L.Wild mahoganyCE killed 13% T. confusum16,171
134. Mimosa pudica L.Shame mi ladyInactivated S. stercoralis larvae in 1 hr (most active), CE killed 60% T. confusum, not very active against B. microplus (16AI)14, 16, 98, 120, 121, 172, 173
135. Artocarpus altilisBreadfruitInactivated S. stercoralis larvae in 9.5 and 49 hrs for two extracts for It95; CE active against T. confusum (95% killed), Hypothenemus hampei,
Plutella xylostella, Oomyzus sokolowakii, B. microplus (53AI),
Amblyomma cajennense and F. oxysporum; CE active against C. formicarius
(48hr Ld95 0.86 µg/insect, Lc50 3.9 mg/g), an isolated pentacyclic triterpene
had insecticidal activty against C. formicarius, oil fraction contained
compounds with insecticidal activity working synergistically - efficacy
decreased with purification, dimethyl sulfoxide increased toxicity of
triterpene to 1.9 mg/g; CE was 98% as active as Pyrenone (a commercial
formulation of Pyrethrum) on adult B. microplus; isolated gamma-
aminobutyric acid was a hypertensive agent
14, 44, 51, 71, 93, 98, 100, 103, 104,
120, 121, 160, 161,
173, 174, 175, 176,
177, 178, 179
136. Artocarpus heterophyllusJackfruitCE killed 20% T. confusum16
137. Cecropia peltataTrumpet treeCE killed 7% T. confusum, active against B. microplus (58AI), some antihelminthic potential against S. stercoralis14, 16, 98, 172
138. Ficus perforata L.Wild figCE killed 23% T. confusum16
139. Trophis racemosaRamoonAlkaloidal extract lowers intraocular pressure in dogs180,181
140. Bontia daphnoidesKidney bushCE killed 100% T. confusum, active against B. microplus (69AI), hexane fraction most active; isolated epingaione, a sesquiterpene furan, which
was active against C. formicarius, B. microplus, Candida albicans and
inhibited the elongation of radish roots
14, 16, 115, 182, 183,184
141. Myristica fragransNutmegNo effect on T. confusum, oil controlled C. formicarius (Ld50 of 0.90 µg/insect), efficacy decreased after 3 hrs.16, 169, 185
142. Eucalyptus spp.EucalyptusOil controlled C. formicarius (Ld50 of 0.388 µg/insect), efficiency declined after 3 hours169
143. Pimento dioica L.PimentoActive against B. microplus (44AI); isolated essential oils and oleoresins; leaf extracts as lethal as oxymyl in vitro against M.. incognita and R.
reniformis (had nematocidal potential) but appeared phytotoxic at rates used.
14, 93, 186, 187, 188
144. Psidium guajavaGuavaRelatively low activity against B. microplus93,100
145. Sauvagesia browneiIron shrubListed but not tested93
146. Jasminium fluminenseAzores jasmineNo effect on 5 bacteria45
147. Cocos nuciferaCoconutControls diabetes3
148. Bocconia frutescensJohn crow bushNo effect on 5 bacteria, active against B. microplus (46AI)14, 16, 45
149. Alysicarpus vaginalisMedinaActive against S. aureus++45
150. Cajanus cajan L.Gungo peaCE killed 37% T. confusum16
151. Crotalaria junceaSunhempNo effect on 5 bacteria45
152. Crotalaria retusaRattle weedCE killed 30% T. confusum, active against B. microplus (51AI)14, 16
153. Desmodium canumSweetheartListed but not tested93
154. Erythrina corallodendrumSpanish macheteActive against B. microplus (61AI)14
155. Gliricida sepiumQuick stickNo effect on 5 bacteria, CE killed 60% T. confusum, active against B. microplus (64AI).14, 16, 45
156. Lonchocarpus latifoliusDogwoodNo effect on 5 bacteria45
157. Piscidia piscipula L.DogwoodCE killed 40% T. confusum16
158. Stylosanthes viscosaPoor man’s friendListed but not tested93
159. Passiflora maliformisSweet cupNo effect on 5 bacteria45
160. Petiveria alliaceaGuinea hen weedCE killed 37% T. confusum, active against B. microplus (66AI), an insecticidal and acaricidal polysulphide isolated; CE had immunodulatory
activity; active against F. oxysporum
14, 16, 45, 93, 100, 115, 189, 190
161. Rivina humilisDog bloodNo effect on 5 bacteria, some antihelminthic activity against S. stercoralis (Lt50 of 51.0)45, 98, 99, 172
162. Peperomia clusifoliaNo name givenIsolated a prenylated benzopran derivative, clusifoliol; three isolated natural products exhibited anticancer properties; nigrinodine had antifungal
activity
15, 77
163. Peperomia pellucidaRat earsNo effect on 5 bacteria; no activity against B. microplus45, 93, 100
164. Peperomia proctoriiNo name givenIsolated 5 natural products- 2 chemicals showed mosquitocidal activity15
165. Piper aduncumNo name given6 natural isolated amides had no effect on B. microplus; 3 amides synthesized from 5,6Z and E butenolides have insecticidal properties49, 69, 70, 73, 74
166. Piper amalgo var nigrinodumPepper elderNo effect on 5 bacteria; isolated nigrodine, pipercide and guineesine which exhibited antifeedant, anticancer, antifungal properties; isolated 6
amides, 3 (including nigrinodine) killed 100% Aedes aegyptii at
100 ppm but inactive on Mycobacterium tuberculosis at 12.5 µg/ml; isolated
gamma-aminobutyric acid and dopamine, the former being a hypertensive
agent

14, 15, 16, 45, 52,
167. Piper auritumNo name givenas for P. fadyenii69, 70, 73, 74
168. Piper betleNo name givenAntimicrobial and anti-inflammatory affects; antifungal78
169. Piper fadyeniiNo name given3 natural isolated compounds had no effect on B. microplus; 3 amides synthesized from isolated 5,6Z and E butenolides have insecticidal properties
– inhibited ovogenesis of B. microplus and was toxic to T. confusum
15, 49, 69, 70, 73, 74
170. Piper hispidumNo name givenas for P. fadyenii74
171. Piper murrayanumNo name given6 natural products isolated; isolated prenylated hydroxybenzoic derivatives had antimicrobial activity15, 72, 76
172. Piper verrucosumNo name givenIsolated 2 natural compounds, one had contact insecticidal activity; isolated 3,4-epoxy-8,9-dihydropiplartine15, 75
173. Pothomorphe umbellataCow footListed but not tested93
174. Antigonon leptopusCoralitaCE killed 13% T. confusum, active against Streptococcus A++; isolated oleoresins and aquaresins from flowers - used as colourant and tested for
mammalian toxicity
16, 45, 191
175. Coccoloba krugiiNo name givenActive against S. aureus++ and P. mirabilis+45
176. Cycloptis semicordataTall fernCE killed 90% T. confusum, active against B. microplus (74AI)14, 16, 95
177. Lastrepsis effusaFine fernCE killed 23% T. confusum16
178. Portulaca oleraceaJump up & kiss meGood antihelminthic potential (Lt50 of 31.2 hrs) against S. stercoralis98, 99
179. Gouania lupuloidesChew stickIsolated triterpenoid saponins - bioactivity not determined192
180. Rhizophora mangleRed mangroveTriterpenoids with insecticidal activity45,193
181. Coffea libericaLiberian coffeeCE killed 13% T. confusum16
182. Borreria laevisButton weedNo effect on 5 bacteria, CE killed 13% T. confusum45
183. Morinda royocStrong backNo effect on 5 bacteria45
184. Amyris plumieriCandle woodIsolated 2,5-diaryl oxazole and chromene194 - 197
185. Citrus aurantifoliaLimeActive against S. aureus+45, 93
186. Citrus aurantiumSeville orangeCE killed 13% T. confusum, active against B. microplus (50AI)14, 16
187. Citrus reticulataTangerineCE killed 17% T. confusum16
188. Fagara elephantiasisYellow sandersCE killed 37% T. confusum16
189. Fagara martinicensisBitter bushCE killed 37% T. confusum, low activity against B. microplus (22AI)14
190. Murraya koenigiiMeethi neemDose dependant antifeedant158,159
191. Murraya paniculataSweet neemActive against S. aureus+16, 45
192. Spathelia glabrescensNo name givenIsolated meso form of 2, 23-dihydroxy-2, 6, 10, 15, 19, 23-hexamethyl-3,7,11,15,19-penta (oxacyclopentyl) tetracosane, (glabresol)
- bioactivity not tested
198
193. Spathelia sorbifoliaMountain prideChromenes and 2-quinolone isolated; spathelin isolated - bioactivity not tested164,199
194. Blighia sapidaAckeeHypoglycin A and B isolated and found to be poisonous; improved isolation procedure for hypoglycin A devised; No effect on 5 bacteria; CE killed 20%
T. confusum; active against B. microplus (76AI); oil a potent insecticide -
killed 100% C, formicarius (4 mg/insect) and 77% B. microplus (4 µg/tick),
most potent fraction was 3 fatty acids including methyl-6-methyl-3-ox
opentadecanoic acid; Ld50 values were Leucoptera coffeela (3.2%),
Hypothenemus hampei (2.3%) and Plutella xylostella (4.7%), formulations
were active for 14 days; CE produced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia
in mice; plants produced callus and axillary bud growth in tissue culture.
14, 16, 45, 54, 56, 93, 100, 103, 104,
178, 200, 201, 202
195. Melicoccus bijugatusGuinepNo effect on 5 bacteria, CE killed 17% T. confusum, less active against B. microplus (16AI)14, 16, 45
196. Chrysophyllum cainitoStar appleCE killed 17% T. confusum16
197. Manilkara zapotaNaseberryListed but not tested93
198. Capraria bifloraGoat weedNovel sesquiterpenoids and 4 caprariolides were isolated; Caprariolides A&B combined had a synergistic effect against C. formicarius (Ld50 50.8
µg/insect) and was equitoxic to eugenol
203
199. Alvaradoa jamaicensisNo name givenIsolated alvaradoins A, B, C &-Dantracenone C arabinosides; isolated anthraquinones chrysophanol and physcion were inactive against
Mycobacterium tuberculosis at 12.5 µg/ml
47,204
200. Picrasma excelsaBitter woodSome antihelminthic activity against S. stercoralis44, 98, 99, 172
201. Simarouba glaucaBitter damsonNo effect on 5 bacteria, very active against B. microplus (100AI, LD50 0.63 µL/tick for CH2Cl2 fraction); reduced cabbage damage in field trials14, 45, 95, 96, 151
202. Smilax balbisianaChainy rootListed but not tested93
203. Smilax regeliiSarsaparillaListed but not tested93
204. Capsicum annumHot pepperCE killed 100% T. confusum, active against B. microplus (66AI)14, 16, 102, 104
205. Capsicum baccatumBird pepperEffective hypoglycaemic agent3,102
206. Capsicum frutescensBird pepperCE killed 13% T. confusum; effective hypoglycaemic agent3, 16, 102
207. Datura stramoniumJimson weedCE killed 13% T. confusum16
208. Nicotiana tabacumTobaccoCE killed 100% T. confusum, very active against B. microplus (95AI)14, 16
209. Solanum torvumSusumberNo effect on 5 bacteria45, 93
210. Cola acuminataBissyIsolated triterpenestaraxeryl acetate, epi-friedeline, friedelin, teraxerylacetate and vanillic acid - bioactivity not tested67, 154, 205
211. Guazuma ulmifoliaBastard cedarListed but not tested93
212. Turnera ulmifoliaRamgoat dash-a-longNo effect on 5 bacteria, less active against B. microplus (26AI)14, 16, 45, 93
213. Eryngium foetidumSpirit weedHigh antihelminthic potential against S. stercoralis Lt50 18.9 hrs; an unsaturated, long chain fatty aldehyde isolated but not identified, the
activity of this antihelminthic compound far exceeds that of thiabendazole
and compares favourably with ivermectin; contains ingredients with
anticonvalescent properties which may be useful in treatment of epilepsy;
hexane extract rich in terpenes (alphacholesterol, brassicasterol, delta
5-avenasterol, campestrol, stigmasterol, deorosterol), leaves effective for
anti-inflammatory purposes
26, 44, 98, 99, 206, 207
214. Foeniculum vulagareFennelListed but not tested93
215. Pilea microphylla var microphyllaBaby puzzleActive against S. aureus+45
216. Pilea microphylla var trianthemoideArtillery plantNo effect on 5 bacteria45
217. Clerodendrum philippinumLady nugent roseNo effect on 5 bacteria45
218. Lantana camaraWhite sageActive against S. aureus++; CE active against Streptococcus Group A, B and D, Staphylococcus epidermis and S. aureus at 130 µg/mL45, 46
219. Lantana involucrataWild mintLow acaricidal activity against B. microplus (21AI)14,100
220. Lantana trifoliaWild sageListed but not tested93
221. Lantana urticifoliaBlack sageTerpenes isolated; has acaricidal activity against B. microplus93, 100, 131
222. Lippia albaColic mintActive against B. microplus (62AI); CE active against Streptococcus Group A, B and D, Staphylococcus epidermis and S. aureus at 130 µg/mL14, 46, 93
223. Petrea volubilisPurple wreathNo effect on 5 bacteria45
224. Priva lappulaceaClammy burNo effect on 5 bacteria45
225. Stachytarpheta jamaicensisVervineNo effect on 5 bacteria, low antihelminthic activity against S. stercoralis larvae (inactivated in 81.5 hrs), active against B. microplus (79AI); isolated
phytosterol and spinasterol; isolated dopamine - had pressor activity
14, 44, 45, 67, 71, 93, 98, 120, 121
226. Zingiber officinaleGingerActive against B. microplus (45AI)14
PRN = plant reference number, CE = crude extract, AI = acaricidal index, MIC = minimum inhibitory concentration.

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