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Chickweed

Herbal Database (Link)

This is a list of plants and their medicinal use.

Common NameParts UsedLatin Name(s)FamilyProperties & UsesChemical Constituents
AbelmoskseedsHibiscus moschatusMalvaceaenervine, perfume, aphrodisiac,
demulcent
Acaciagum resinAcacia senegal, A. veraLeguminoseaegum, sweets, adhesives, demulcentgums, tannins
AgrimonyleavesAgrimonia eupatoriaRosaceaedye, tonic, astringent, vulnerary,
diuretic, stomachic, hepatic,
antisecretory
Alfalfaleaves,
sprouts
Medicago sativaLeguminosaenutritiveprotein
AllspiceseedsPimenta officinalisMyrtaceaespice, carminativeeugenol, cineole,
caryophyllene
Allspice, CarolinabarkCalycanthus floridusCalycanthaceaefragrance, spice, cinnamon
substitute, antispasmodic
AloeleavesAloe barbadoensis, A.
vera var. officinalis
Liliaceaeantiseptic, burn ointment, purgative,
GI irritant, not for pregnant
barbaloin O-pentosides,
aloinosides, chrysophanic
acid, cinnamic acids
AnattoseedsBixa orellanaBixaceaetasteless yellow food dye
AngelicarootAngelica archangelica, A.
sinensis, A. spp.
Umbelliferaespice, candies, expectorant,
carminative, diaphoretic, mild
stimulant, antibacterial
angleic, fumaric, caffeic,
chrorogenic acids, angelicol,
angelicin
AngosturabarkAngostura febrifuga,
Galipea officinalis
Rutaceaebitter stomachic, appetite stimulant,
carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic,
drinks
quinolines: cusparine,
cuspareine, galipine,
galipodine, galipoline
AniseseedsPimpinella anisumUmbelliferaespice, carminative, diuretic,
diaphoretic, expectorant
anethole
ArnicapetalsArnica montana, A. spp.Compositeaevulnerary, external use onlyvolatile oil, arnicin, arnisterol,
anthoxanthine, tannin, resin
ArrowrootrootMaranta arundinaceaMarantaceaeculinary, sweetener, anti-diarrhealstarch
Arthritis RootrootHarpagophytum
procumbens
Pedaliaceaealterative, llithotriptic, stimulant
AsafoetidaresinFerula assa-foetidaLeguminoseaecarminative, expectorant, candiesferulic, tannic esters, pinene,
vanillin, gum, oil
Astragalusvarious
parts
Astragalus gummifer, A.
glycphyullus, A. sinicus,
A. spp.
LeguminosaeChinese medicinal (A. sinica), gums,
lotions (A. gummifer), some with
selenium or alkaloid toxicity
Balm-of-GileadbudsPopulus candicans, P.
balsamifera
Salicacewound sealer, expectorant, antisepticpropolis, sap
Balsam-ApplefruitMomordica balsaminaCucurbitaceaeonamental, fragrance
Barberrybark, fruitsBerberis vulgarisBerberidaceaetonic, laxative, refrigerant, antiseptic,
stomachic
berberine
Basil, SweetleavesOcimum basilicum,
Ocimum spp.
Labiateaespice, mild stimulantocimene (an open chain C-10
terpene)
Bay LeafleavesLaurus nobilisLauraceaespice, carminative, astringentlong-chain esters
BayberrybarkMyrica cerifera, M. gale,
M. pennsylvanica, M.
californica, M. spp.
Myricaceaeastringent, emetic, mild stimulant,
sialagogue, hemostatic, dye,
insecticide, candle wax fragrance
resin, tannin, gum, starch,
palmitic, myristic, lauric acids
Belladonnawhole plantAtropa belladonnaSolanaceaeantisecretory, mydriatic,
antispasmodic, stimulant-depressant,
hallucinogen, psychotic, delusinogen
atropine, scopolamine
BergamotleavesMonarda didyma, M.
citriodora, M. spp.
Labiateaetea, fragrance, mild stimulant,
carminative
l-linalool acetic ester, d-
limonene, carvacrol, cymene
Betel NutsseedsAreca catechuPalmaceaeparasympathomimetic, stimulant-
depressant, dye, narcotic, can cause
cardiac strain
arecolines (compounds
related to the tobacco
alkaloids)
BetonyleavesStachys officinalisLabiateaeappetite stimulant, cordial, tea
Birchbark, sapBetula lentaBetulaceaecounterirritant, antipyretic, analgesic,
irritates ulcers, can cause salicylate
poisoning
methyl salicylate
BirthrootrootTrillium pendulumLiliaceaevaginal antihemmorragic, mucous
membrane irritant
trilline, trillarin (a diglycoside
resembling diosgenin)
Bloodrootsap, rootSanguinaria canadensisPapaveraceaedye, demulcent, expectorant, smooth
muscle stimulant, exacerbates
glaucoma
sanguinarine, chelidonine
BoldoleavesPeumus boldusMonimiaceaefragrance, tea, carminative, formerly
used in hepatic dysfunction, gastric
stimulant
volatile oil, boldine (an
aporphine)
BonesetleavesEupatorium perfoliatumCompositeaeantimalarial, diaphoretic, mucilage,
emetic, depletes blood sugars,
chronic toxicity
wax, tremetrol, resin, tannin
BorageleavesBorago officinalisBoraginaceaepotherb, diuretic, demulcent,
emollient, may have chronic toxicity
pyrrolizidines
BuchuleavesBarosma betulina,
Agathosma spp.
Rutaceaetea, fragrance, weak diuretic, urinary
antiseptic, diaphoretic
diosphenol, volatile oils,
flavonoids
Burdockroots,
leaves,
stems
Arctium lappaCompositaediaphoretic, diuretic, demulcentvolatile oils, inulin, tannin,
arctiin (a glycoside)
Burnet, SaladleavesSanguisorba officinalis
(Poterium sanguisorba)
Rosaceaevulnerary, salad herb, tonic,
astringent, hemostatic, diaphoretic,
herb beer, cordials
Burra GokerooseedsPedalium murexPedaliaceaeGI antiseptic, ganglial stimulant, male
aphrodisiac, tonic, antispasmodic
CalamusrootAcorus calamusAraceaeanthelmintic, stimulant, carminative,
mild hallucinogen, carcinogen
asarone, eugenol, pinene,
camphene, caryophyllene
CalendulaflowersCalendula officinalisCompositeaevulnerary, astringent, diaphoretic,
antispasmodic
carotenoids, calendulin, a
saponin of calendin
California PoppysapEschscholtzia californicaPapaveraceaesedative, smooth muscle stimulant,
exacerbates glaucoma
coptisine, sanguinarine
CalumbarootCocculus palmatus,
Jateorrhiza palmata
Menispermaceaebitter tonic, toxic?, smooth muscle
stimulant, exacerbates glaucoma
C. indicus contains
picrotoxin, menispermine,
cocculine, quarternary
berberine-type alkaloids
CamphorbarkCinnamomum camphoraLauraceaeincense, counter-irritant, anaesthetic,
antiseptic, narcotic, abuse can cause
liver and kidney damage
2 - bornanone, a C-10
terpene
CapersseedsCapparis spinosaCapparidaceaespice, seasoning
CarawayseedsCarum carviUmbelliferaespice, carminative, anti-griping agent,
pedullicide, mild CNS depressant
carvone, limonene
CardamonseedsElettaria cardamomunZingiberaceaespice, carminativecineole, terpineole, terpinyl
acetate
Carobroasted
seeds
Ceratonis siliquaLeguminoseaespice, condiment, sweetener
Carrotwhole plantDaucus carotaUmbelliferaespice, diuretic, purgative for bladder,
antilithic
vitamin A, caryophyllene
Cascara sagradabarkRhamnus purshianaRhamnaceaebitter tonic, strong laxativeanthraquinone glycosides
Castor Beanbean oilRicinus communisEuphorbiaceaepurgative, source of castor oiltriglycerides of fatty acids,
mostly ricinoleic and stearic
CatnipleavesNepeta catariaLabiateaetea, feline sex stimulant,
antispasmodic, nervine, mild CNS
stimulant
nepetalactone, citral,
limonene, geraniol,
citronellal, nerol
CeleryseedsApium graveolensUmbelliferaespice, digestive aid, antiseptic, CNS
agent, antispasmodic
sedonic anhydrides, nitrates
Centaurywhole herbCentaurium erythraea, C.
umbellatum, C. spp.,
Erythraea centaurium
Gentianaceaearomatic, appetite stimulant, bitter
tonic, stomachic, blood-purifier
erythro-centaurin (bitter
principle), eritaurin, valeric
acid
Chamomile,
Roman
flowersAnthemis nobilis
(Chamaemelum nobile)
Compositeaetea, mild stimulant, appetite stimulant,
bitter tonic, emetic
anthemides, tiglic esters
Chamomile,
German
flowersMatricaria chamomillaCompositeaetea, sedative, antipyretic, mild CNS
depressant
azulenes, sesquiterpenes,
alpha-bisabolol
ChapparalleavesLarria mexicana, L.
divaricata
Zygophyllaceaeantiseptic, alterative, expectorant,
diuretic, antibiotic, antioxidant
NDGA (a powerful
antioxidant)
Cherry, WildbarkPrunus serotinaRosaceaearoma, tea, expectorant, cough syrup,
stomachic
cyanogenic glycosides,
emulsin
ChervilleavesAnthriscus cerefoliumUmbelliferaespice, salad herbanise-like terpenes
Chiaseeds,
sprouts
Salvia hispanica, S.
columbariae
Labiateaebulk former, nutritive
Chickweedabove-
ground
parts
Stellaria media, S. spp.Caryophyllaceaedemulcent, refrigerant, poultice,
nutritive
Chicoryroasted rootCichorium intybusCompositeaecoffee additivefructosans
ChivesrootsAllium schoenoprasumAmaryllidaceaespice, potherballyl disulfides
Chrysanthemum,
Edible
leavesChrysanthemum
coronarium
Compositaeoriental vegetable, potherb
ChufarhizomesCyperus esculentusCyperaceaeflour substitutestarch
CilantroleavesCoriandrum sativumUmbelliferaeculinary herb, see Coriander for seedlinalool, malic acid, tannin,
mucilage
CinnamonbarkCinnamomum
zeylanicum
Lauraceaespice, tea, fragrance, perfumecinnamaldehydes
CitronellaleavesCymbopogon nardusGramineaeinsect repellant, perfumecitronellal
CitruspeelCitrus aurantium, C.
limon
Rutaceaecandies, nutritive, spice, carminativeflavonoids, limonene, wax,
ketonic acids, aldehydes,
esters, alcohols
Clover, RedtopsTrifolium pratenseLeguminoseaetea, vitamin, proteinproteins
Clovesdried flower
buds
Syzygium aromaticum,
Caryophyllus aromaticus
Myrtaceaespice, dental anaesthetic, antiseptic,
aphrosidisiac, stimulant, ~allergen
eugenol
Cocoawoody fruitTheobroma cacaoSterculiaceaecocoa drinks, candies, emollient
butter, demulcent, CNS stimulant,
can produce nervousness,
sleeplessness
fat, mucliage, theobromine (a
xanthine)
Coffeeroasted
beans
Coffea arabicaRubiaceaeCNS stimulant, can cause
nervousness, irritates ulcers &
mucous membranes
caffeine
Cohosh, BlackrootCimifuga racemosaRanunculaceaepesticide, bitter astringent, mild
emetic, sedative
ferulic, palmitic, oleic acids,
resin, tannin, cimifugin
Cohosh, BluerootCaulophyllum
thalictroides
Berberidaceaeoxytocic, antispasmodic,
emmenagogue, diuretic, not for
pregnant
leontin, caulophylline,
saponins, resins
Cola NutsfruitCola nitida, C. acuminataSterculiaceaeanaleptic, aphrodisiac, CNS
stimulant, diuretic, astringent, irritates
ulcers & mucous membranes, can
cause nervousness
xanthines, gum, catechols
ColtsfootleavesTussilago farfaraCompositeaedemulcent, expectorant, emollient,
smokable
tannin, saponins, resin,
pectin, caotchouc
ComfreyleavesSymphytum officinaleBoraginaceaepoultices, internal demulcent, diuretic,
laxative, ~allergen
pyrrolidizines, allantoin,
mucilage, tannin
CorianderseedsCoriandrum sativumUmbelliferaespice, carminative, antipyretic, see
Cilantro for leaf
linalool, malic acid, tannin,
mucilage
Costmarywhole herbChrysanthemum
balsamita
Compositaefragrance, teas, herb pillows, soups,
bitter stomachic, tonic, blood purifier
Cramp BarkbarkViburnum opulusCaprifoliaceaePMS antispasmodic, astringent,
nervine
Cubebdried unripe
fruit
Piper cubebaPiperaceaespice, aphrodisiac, to heal mucous
membranes (as a counterirritant?)
terpenes, sesquiterpenes,
furanobenze, dipentene,
cadinene
CuminseedsCuminum cyminumUmbelliferaespice, linimentpara-substituted
isopropylbenzenes,
cuminaldehyde
DamianaleavesTurnera aphrodisiaca, T.
diffusa
Turneraceaetea, smokable, aphrodisiac,
euphoriant, antipyretic, tonic,
purgative, GI irritant
volatile oil
Dandelionwhole plantTaraxacum officinaleCompositeaehepatic tonic, diuretic, stomachic,
antilithic, astringent, cholagogue
taraxerol, choline, levulin,
inulin, pectin
Devil's Clubroots, bark,
leaves
Oplopanax horridusAraliaceaestomachic, antispasmodic, vulnerary,
toothache agent, tonic, charm
Dillseeds,
flowers
Anethum graveolensUmbelliferaespice, carminative, stomachic,
nervine
dillapiole
DitabarkAlstonia scholaris
(Echites scholaris)
Apocynaceaetonic, astringent, anthelmintic,
antimalarial, hallucinogen
chlorogenine, echitamine,
echitenine, alsonine,
porphyrine
Dittany, MarylandleavesCunila origanoidesLabiateaespice, herb, tea
Dittany of CreteleavesOriganum dictamnusUmbelliferaespice, antiseptic, preservativecarvacrol, thymol
Dragon's Bloodtree resinDaemonorops dracoPalmaceaecharm, dye, tannin sourcesap
EchinacearhizomeEchinacea purpurea, E.
angustifolia, E. spp.
Compositeaealterative, contact parisiticide,
antiseptic, sialogogue, analgesic,
immune system stimulant
inulin, sucrose, 2-
methlytetradecadienes,
echinacein, caffeic glycoside
Elderberryflowers,
fruits, bark
Sambucus nigra, S.
canadensis, S. cerulea
Caprifoliaceaeaperient, diuretic, dye, diaphoretic,
cough syrup, PMS antispasmodic,
sedative, HCN toxicity, esp. in bark of
N. Am. spp.
cyanogenic glycoside,
sambuline, viburnic acid,
tyrosine, tannic acid
ElecampanerootInula heleniumCompositeaetonic, charm, expectorant, diuretic,
astringent
inulin, alantol, helenin, alantic
acid, resin
EpazoteleavesChenopodium
ambrosioides
Chenopodiaceaeseasoning, anthelmintic, toxic in
quantity
Eucalyptusleaves,
pods
Eucalyptus globulusMyrtaceaespice, astringent, anti-diarrheal,
expectorant
volatile oil, resins, tannin,
eucalyptic acid, rutin
Evening PrimroseleavesOenothera biennis, O.
spp.
Onagraceaeastringent, sedative, anti-aging agent,
PMS treatment, potherb
gamma-linoleic acid (GLA,a
prostaglandin precursor)
EyebrightleavesEuphrasia officinalisScrophulariaceaealterative, astringent for eye straintannin, bitter principle
False UnicornrootHelonias dioica
(Chamaelirium luteum),
H. luteum
Liliaceaeformerly used for conception, sexual
tonic, emetic, sialogogue, parisiticide,
~toxic to livestock
FennelseedsFoeniculum vulgareUmbelliferaespice, digestive aid, carminative,
expectorant, mild stimulant, cold
treatment
anethole
FenugreekleavesTrigonella foenum-
graecum
Leguminoseaespice, bulk laxative, horse's cure-all,
demulcent, aphrodisiac, astringent,
emollient, tonic, expectorant,
galactagogue, GI irritant
protein, choline, phosphates,
trigonelline, volatile oil
Feverfewwhole plantPyrethrum parthenium,
Chrysanthemum
parthenium
Asteraceaetonic, emmenagogue, anthelmintic,
mild stimulant, emetic, can cause
headache & CNS disturbances
pyrethrins, insecticidal
compounds
FlaxseedsLinum usitatissimum, L.
spp.
Linaceaedemulcent, emmollient, bulk former,
mucilage, laxative
mucilage, wax, tannin, gum,
cyanogenic glycosides
FleeceflowerrootPolygonum multiflorumPolygonaceaegeneral and reproductive female
tonic, diuretic
oxalates
Frankincensegum resinBoswellia carteriBurseraceaeperfume, incensevolatile oil, resins, gum,
bassorin
GalangalrhizomeAlpinia galanga, A.
officinarum, Kaempferia
galanga
Zingiberaceaerespiratory stimulant, toothache
agent, demulcent, antibacterial,
hallucinogen
flavonoids
Ganjaflowering
tops
Cannabis sativaCannabinaceaeappetite stimulant, antiemetic,
euphoriant, mild hallucinogen, can
cause tachycardia, lowers blood
pressure
tetrahydrocannibinol (THC),
an oxygenated terpene
derivative
GarlicbulbsAllium sativumAmaryllidaceaespice, bacteriostat, alterative,
antibiotic, expectorant,
antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic,
used for heart benefits, GI irritant
allyl disulfides
GentianrootGentiana luteaGentianaceaebitter tonic, stomachic, appetite mild
stimulant, digestive aid
water-soluble phenolic
glycosides, gentiopicrin,
gentiamarin, gentiin
Geranium,
Scented
leavesPelargonium
odoratissimum
Geraniaceaemouthwash, ointmentgeraniol esters, citronellol,
linalool
Gill-Over-The-
Ground
leavesGlechoma hederaceaLabiateaemild stimulant, tonic, beer flavoring
GingerrootZingiber officinaleZingiberaceaespice, carminative, diaphoretic, mild
stimulant, GI irritant
citral, zingerone,
sesquiterpenes, bisabolene
Ginger, WildrhizomesAsarum canadense, A.
caudatum
Aristolochiaceaemild stimulant, stomachicmethyl eugenol
Ginkgoleaves,
seeds
Ginkgo bilobaGinkgoaceaeroasted seeds as a culinary, leaves
as a memory enhancer
GinsengrootPanax ginsengAraliaceaetea, mental stimulant, alterative,
stomachic, tonic, can lower blood
sugar
gingenosides, sapogenins,
ginsenin, mucilage, resin
Goldenrod, SweetleavesSolidago odoraCompositaeteasanise-like volatile oil
GoldensealrootHydrastis canadensisRanunculaceaeastringent, hemostatic, douche,
antibiotic, emmenagogue, antiseptic,
smooth muscle stimulant, dyspeptic,
hypotensive
hydrastine, berberine-type
alkaloids
Goldthreadroot, plantCoptis trifolia, C.
groenlandica, C. spp.
Ranunculaceaebitter tonic, oral hemostaticberberine, coptine
Gotu-Kolaabove-
ground
parts
Hydrocotyle asiatica var.
minor, (Centella asiatica)
Umbelliferaememory stimulant, nervine, psychic
energizer, alterative, antipyretic,
tonic, diuretic
Grains of
Paradise
seedsAframomum meleguetaZingiberaceaespice, cordial
Gravel RootrootEupatorium purpureumCompositeaebitter, strong antilithic, diuretic,
astringent
GuaranaleavesPaulinia cupanaSapindaceaemild CNS stimulant, can cause
nervousness, irritates ulcers, mucous
membranes
xanthines
HawthornfruitCrataegus monogyna, C.
spp.
Rosaceaecardiac tonic, diuretic, astringent,
antispasmodic, sedative
triterpene acids, flavonoids,
choline, acetylcholine,
ascorbic acid
HennaleavesLawsonia inermis, L.
alba, L. spinosa
Lythraceaehair dye, externally for impotence,
fungicide, ~allergen
lawsone
Hibiscusstems,
flowers
Hibiscus spp.Malvaceaetea, mild stimulant, fiber mats, ropeflavonoids
HopsleavesHumulus lupulusCannabinaceaetea, used in brewing beer, antiseptic,
stomachic, diuretic, nervine,
carminative, anodyne, cholagogue,
sedative, smokable
humulene (a sesquiterpene),
lupulon
HorehoundleavesMarrubium vulgareLabiateaeexpectorant, carminative, mild
stimulant, charm, diaphoretic, tonic,
candy
tannin, marrubin (a bitter
hydroxy diterpene lactone)
Horse Mintwhole plantCollinsonia canadensisLabiateaegentle tonic, mild stimulant, diuretic,
anti-diarrheal
resin, saponin, tannin,
mucilage
HorseradishrootsArmoracia lapathifolia, A.
rusticana, Rorippa
armoracia, Cochleria
amoracia
Brassicaceaespice, herb, diaphoretic, diuretic,
stomachic, expectorant
myrosin, sinigrin, choline
esters of allylisothiocyanates,
N-sulfates
HorsetailfoliageEquisetum arvense, E.
spp.
Equisetaceaeastringent, abrasive, diuretic, mineral
source, can cause muscle weakness,
abnormal pulse, hypertension
silica, nicotine, aconitic acid,
equisitine
HyssopleavesHyssopus officinalisLabiateaepungent spice, poultice, expectorant,
mild stimulant, diaphoretic
pinene, sesquiterpenes
Indigo, Wildroot, leavesBaptisia tinctoriaLeguminoaeaepurgative, emetic, vulnerary, can
cause heart arrythmias
glucosides: baptisin,
baptitoxine (cytisine), alkaloid
IrisrootIris X florentinaIridaceaepurgative, floral fixative, ~toxic,
~allergen
iridin, oleoresin, tannin, gum,
camphoraceous substance
Irish Mosswhole plantChondrus crispus
(various seaweeds)
Gigartinaceae
(seaweed)
demulcent, nutrient, diet aid, bulk
former, emollient
polysaccharides
JalaprootIpomoea purgaConvolvulaceaedrastic purgativeresin, gum, sugar
JasmineflowersJasminum officinaleOleaceaetea, incense, floralsjasmone
JujubefruitZizyphus jujuba, Ziziphus
jujuba
Rhamnaceaeflavoring for candies
JuniperfruitsJuniperus communisPinaceaeurinary and general antiseptic,
flavoring for gin, diuretic, overdose
can cause kidney and personality
disorders, convulsions, catharsis
terpinenol, alpha-pinene,
camphene, cadinene
Kava-kavarootPiper methysticumPiperaceaestimulant tea, or narcotic when
thoroughly chewed, causes skin
lesions amongst the habituated
methysticin, yangonin,
dihydrokawain
Kelpwhole plantLaminaria spp., Fucus
spp., Sargassum spp.,
Macrosytica spp., etc.
Seaweednutritive, mineral source, demulcent,
bulk laxative, can cause water
retention
iodine, bromine, alginic acid
Khatfresh
leaves
Catha edulisCelastraceaeCNS & spinal stimulant, can cause
tachycardia & nervousness
choline, cathine, cathinone,
d-norpseudoephedrine
Khus-KhusrootsVetiveria zizanioides,
Andropogon muricatus
Gramineaeperfume fixative, insect repellantvetiverone, a C-15 terpene,
vetivenoids, palmitic, benzoic
acids
KinnikinnickleavesArctostaphylos uva-ursiEricaceaesmokable, diuretic, antiseptic, GI
astringent, mild CNS depressant
arbutin (hydrolyses to
hydroquinolone), flavonoids,
gallic, malic acids
Kuthmithiwhole plantWiltharia somniferaSolanaceaesedative, tranquilizer, tonicsomniferine, possibly other
toxic alkaloids
Labrador TealeavesLedum palustre, L.
groenlandicum, L.
glandulosum
Ericaceaebitter astringent, vulnerary, can cause
cause kidney disorders
ledol
Lad's LoveleavesArtemisia abrotanumCompositeaeculinary, astringent, bitter tonic
Lady's MantleleavesAlchemilla vulgarisRosaceaeastringent, hemostatic, vulnerarytannins
Lady's SlipperrootCyprepedium pubescens,
Cypripedium spp.
Orchidaceaenervine, antispasmodic, sedative,
overharvesting is leading to species
endangerment
tannin, resins
LavenderflowersLavandula vera,
Lavandula spp.
Labiateaesachets, perfumes, bath oilseucalyptol, borneol, camphor,
linalool, terpineol
Lemon BalmleavesMelissa officinalisLabiateaespice, herb, fragrance, diaphoretic,
sedative
citral, linalool, geraniol
Lemon GrassleavesCymbopogon citratusGramineaeincense, pesticide, perfume,
carminative
methyl heptenone, citronellal,
terpene alcohols
Lettuce, WildleavesLactuca virosa, Lactuca
quercina
Compositeaemild narcotic, analgesic, sedativelactucarine
LicoricerootGlycyrrhiza glabraLeguminoseaeaphrodisiac, stomachic, aperient,
expectorant, antispasmodic,
androgenic steroid agent, can cause
mineral retantion, hypertension
glycyrrhizin (a mild mineral
corticoid), gum, tannin,
pentacyclic terpenes
Life EverlastingleavesGnaphalium
polycephalum
Asteraceaeastringent, vulnerary for mouth
Lindenflowers,
leaves
Tilia europaea, T. spp.Tiliaceaestomachic, sialogogue
LobelialeavesLobelia inflataLobeliaceaeexpectorant, stimulant-depressant,
emetic, can cause tolerance
Alpha-lobeline (a di-(hydroxy-
ethyl-phenyl) - 2 - piperidine,
a compound related to
tobacco alkaloids)
Lotusflower
capsules
Nelumbo spp.Nelumbonaceaeculinary, soup thickenerstarch
LovagerootLigusticum levisticum,
Levisticum officinale
Umbelliferaemild stimulant, carminative,
emmenagogue, stomachic
Love Vinewhole plantCuscuta spp.Cuscutaceaelaxative
Ma-HuangleavesEphedra sinicaGnetaceaedecongestant, CNS stimulant, can
cause nervousness, hypertension
ephedrine
MadderrootsRubia tinctorumRubiaceaealizarin crimson dyeanthraquinones
MagnoliabarkMagnolia glaucaMagnoliaceaebitter tonic, diaphoretic
MahaflowersQuararibea funebrisBombacaceaeperfume, flavoring for chocolate
drinks at funerals & festivals,
hallucinogen
5 - membered cyclic enols
and enamines
MalvaflowersMalva spp.Malvaceaeblack potpourri colorpectin, tannin
MarjoramleavesOriganum vulgareLabiateaespice, carminative, digestive aidlimonene, other terpenes
MarshmallowrootAlthea officinalisMalvaceaedemulcent, emollient, poulticeasparagine, mucilage, sugar,
pectin
MaticoleavesPiper angustifoliumPiperaceaeastringent, sex stimulant, urinary
antiseptic (GI irritant?)
Matico camphor, asarone
MistletoestemsPhoradendron flavescensLoranthaceaecharm, emetic, hemorragic, can
cause CV collapse, weak pulse,
vasodilation, smooth muscle
contractions
tyramine, phenethylamines
Mormon Teawhole plantEphedra vulgaris, E.
trifurca, E. spp.
Gnetaceaenasal decongestant, CNS stimulant,
can cause nervousness
ephedrine
Morning GloryseedsIpomoea violacea,
Argyriea nervosa
Convolvulaceaehallucinogen, purgative, abortifacient,
can cause gangrene
lysergamides
Motherwortabove-
ground
parts
Leonurus cardiacaLabiateaenervine, cardiac tonic,
emmenagogue, antispasmodic,
diaphoretic, laxative, PMS nervine
Mugwortleaves,
flowers
Artemisia vulgarisCompositeaeacupuncture moxybustion, dream
herb, nervine, diuretic, diaphoretic
Muira Paumawood
shavings
Liriosma ovata, Acanthea
virilis
Olacaceaeaphrodisiacaromatic resin,
muirapaumine, fat
MulleinleavesVerbascum thapsusScrophulariaceaesmokable, demulcent, rubefacient,
astringent, counter-irritant,
expectorant
saponins
MustardseedsBrassica nigraCruciferaespice, poultice, counterirritant,
carminative, rubefacient
myrosin, sinigrin, choline
esters of allylisothiocyanates,
N-sulfates
Myrrhgum resinCommiphora myrraBurseraceaeincense, local stimulant, antiseptic,
expectorant, mouthwash, embalming
fluid, carminative
resin, acetic, formic,
myrrholic acids
MyrtleleavesMyrtus communisMyrtaceaefragrance, infusion, gargleeucalyptol, d-pinene
Neemseeds,
leaves
Azadirachta indica (Melia
azadirachta)
Meliaceaetimber, antibacterial, antiemetic,
soap, toothpaste, insecticide,
antipyretic, vulnerary
glycerides, nimbin, a terpenic
ester, bitters
NettlesleavesUrtica dioicaLabiateaepotherb, vitamin, protein, alterative,
antiseptic, hemostatic, nutritive
vitamins, A, C, protein
Nutmegseed, aril
(as mace)
Myristica fragransMyristaceaeemmenagogue, spice, aphrodisiac,
mild stimulant, mild hallucinogen
myristicin, elemicin, eugenols
Oat Strawstems,
leaves
Avena sativaGramineaenutrient, demulcent, antidepressant,
nervine, tonic, antispasmodic,
digestive aid, motor ganglial stimulant
albumin, gum, protein,
saponin, avenin
OnionbulbsAllium sativumAmaryllidaceaeculinary, spiceallyl disulfides
OreganoleavesOriganum major, O.
vulgare
Labiateaespice, seasoning herbterpenes
OsharootsLigusticum porteriUmbelliferaestomachic, respiratory agent,
antipyretic, snakebite agent
Parsleyleaves,
seeds
Petroselinum crispumUmbelliferaeherb, diuretic, can raise blood
pressure
pinene, apiole
Passion FlowerleavesPassiflora incarnata, P.
edulis
Passifloraceaesmokable, spinal depressant,
respiratory stimulant, nervine,
antispasmodic, sedative, diaphoretic
beta-carbolines, cyanogenic
glycosides, contains HCN
PatchoulileavesPogostemon cablinLabiateaeincense, cosmeticpatchoulene, azulene,
eugenol, benzaldehyde,
cinnamaldehyde,
sesquiterpene
Pau d'ArcoTabebuia impetiginosaBignoniaceaeimmune stimulant, anti-allergen, anti-
carcinogen, anti-fungal, avoid if
pregnant
PennyroyalleavesMentha pulegiumLabiateaeherb, carminative, diaphoretic,
pedicullicide, mild CNS depressant,
overdose can cause kidney damage
pulegone
Pepper, RedfruitCapsicum tetragonum, C.
annuum, C. frutescens,
C. spp.
Solanaceaespice, GI stimulant, nerve ending
stimulant, counter-irritant, irritates
ulcers and mucous membranes
vanillyl noneamides,
carotenoids
PeppercornsfruitPiper nigrumPiperaceaespice, digestive stimulant, mucous
membrane irritant
piperidines, piperazines
PeppermintleavesMentha piperitaLabiateaetea, spice, candies, antispasmodic,
carminative
menthol, terpenes
Pink RootrootSpigelia marilandicaLoganiaceaeanthelmintic, can cause dizziness,
heart palpitations
spigeline, resin, tannin
Plantain, NarrowleavesPlantago lanceolataPlantaginaceaeointment for exzema, burns,
hemmorroids, bowel pain, laxative,
see Psillium for Plantago seed
xylin (a xylopyranose
derivative related to
cellulose)
Pollenpollen from
bees
Apis melliferaInsect productsweetener, vitamin, nutrientsugars, vitamins B & C,
minerals, hormones
PoppyseedsPapaver somniferumPapaveraceaeculinary herbalbuminoids, ethiodol,
lipiodol, devoid of morphine
alkaloids
Prickly Ashstem barkZanthoxylum
(Xanthoxyllum)
americanum, Z. clava-
herculis
Rutaceaetonic, antispasmodic, flavoring,
alterative, rubefacient,
emmenagogue, diaphoretic,
circulatory stimulant
Prickly PoppyleavesArgemone mexicanaPapaveraceaesmooth muscle stimulant, causes
capillary dilation, can irritate
glaucoma, emetic, purgative
protopine, berberine,
dihydrosanguinarine,
sanguinarine
Prince's Pinewhole plantChimaphila umbellata, C.
spp.
Ericaceaealterative, diuretic, astringent, tonicchimaphilin, arbutin, erecolin,
tannins
Psilliumfruit, husksPlantago ovataPlantaginaceaeantidiarrheal, bulk demulcent,
laxative, emollient, expectorant,
astringent, see plantain for Plantago
leaf
colloidal mucilage
PumpkinseedsCucurbita pepoCucurbitaceaeGI stimulant, sexual hormone
production stimulant
protein, unsaturated fatty
acids, carbohydrate,
phosphorus
RaspberryleavesRubus ideaus, Rubus
spp.
Rosaceaenutritive tea, antispasmodic,
astringent
citric acid, tannins
RhubarbstalksRheum officinale, R.
palmatum
Polygonaceaelaxative, astringent, sialogogue,
stomachic
anthraquinones
Rosefruits (hips)Rosa canina, R. spp.Rosaceaevitamin C source, tea, astringent,
aperient
vitamin C, geraniol, citronellol
RosemaryleavesRosmarinus officinalisLabiateaespice, herb, carminative, GI irritantpinene, camphene, borneol,
& esters
RueleavesRuta graveolensRutaceaenervine, anthelmintic, antispasmodic,
emmenagogue, rubefacient, skin and
kidney irritant
methyl nonyl ketone & esters,
ketones, tannins, methyl
anthranilate
Rue, SyrianseedsPeganum harmalaZygophyllaceaehallucinogenbeta-carbolines
SafflowerflowersCarthamus tinctoriusCompositaefloral, food dye, diaphoreticcarthamin
Saffronflower
stigmas
Crocus sativusIridaceaespice, dye, respiratory stimulant,
aphrodisiac, rubefacient, can cause
bradycardia
alpha-crocin (a gentobiose of
crocetin)
Sage, GardenleavesSalvia officinalisLabiateaespice, antisecretory, insect repellant,
anthelmintic, astringent, perfume
thujone, camphor, salvene
SagebrushleavesArtemisia tridentataCompositaeperfume, antibacterialcamphor
Saint John's WorttopsHypericum perforatum, H.
spp.
Hypericaceaeexternal astringent, alterative,
nervine, sedative, antidepressant,
antiviral, can cause dermatitis
through ultraviolet light sensitivity
hypericin, an 8-ringed
compound
Sandalwoodwood chipsSantalum albumSantalaceaeincense, fumigantsantalol and esters, bicyclic
C-15 terpenes
SarsaparillarootsSmilax officinalis, S.
regelii, S. ornata, S. spp.
Liliaceaetoothache, male hormone adjunct,
tonic, diaphoretic, alterative
resin, oxalates, phytosterols,
adrenal hormones
Sassafrassroot barkSassafrass albidumLauraceaespice, tea, tonic, alterative,
carcinogen
safrole
Savory, SummerleavesSatureja hortensisLabiateaeherb, garnishcarvacrol
Savory, WinterleavesSatureja montanaLabiateaeherb, stronger than summer savory,
liquers
carvacrol
Saw PalmettofruitsSerenoa repens, S.
serrulata
PalmaceaeGI stimulant, glandular stimulant,
bladder analgesic, tonic, antiseptic,
can cause diarrhea
fatty acids and esters
SchisandrafruitsSchisandra glabra, S. sp.Schisandraceae
(Magnoliaceae)
ornamental, tonic, sedative
Sea HollyleavesEryngium maritmumUmbelliferaeaphrodisiac, candies, nervine,
alterative, carminative, diaphoretic,
diuretic, mild stimulant, expectorant,
used in kidney & bladder disease
Sennaleaves,
pods
Cassia speciesLeguminoseaelaxative, anthelmintic, anti-griping
agent, can cause dermatitis
sitosterol, anthraquinone
glycosides, chrysophanic,
flavonoids, emodins
Sensitive PlantleavesMimosa pudicaLeguminoseaesmokable, sexual stimulant when
touched (!)
tryptamines
SerpoletleavesThymus serpyphyllumLabiateaespice, antispasmodic, nervine,
especially for genital nerves
SesameseedsSesamum orientale, S.
indicum
Pedaliaceaespice, aphrodisiacoil, Calcium
ShisoleavesPerilla frutescensLabiateaesushi ginger spice, herb
Skullcapwhole plantScutellaria laterifloraLabiateaesmokable, sedative, antispasmodic,
nervine
scutellarin (a flavonoid),
tannins
Slippery ElmbarkUlmus fulvaUlmaceaeastringent, nutritive for invalids,
demulcent
mucilage, starch, oxalates,
polysaccharides, tannins
Snakeroot,
Seneca
rootPolygala senegaPolygalaceaepurgative, expectorant, stimulates
secretions
Snakeroot, IndianrootsRauwolfia serpentinaApocynaceaestrong tranquilizer, strong depressant
action sometimes fatal
rauwolfine, serpentine
Snakeroot,
Virginia
rootAristolochia serpentariaAristolochiaceaearomatic bitter, snakebite agent,
emetic, can cause vertigo,
abortifacient
aristolochic acid, an aromatic
nitrate
Solomon's SealrootConvallaria multifloraLiliaceaetonic, demulcent, astringent, emetic,
contains potent and dangerous
cardioactive glycosides
constituents unknown, same
genus contains cardiac
glycosides
SpearmintleavesMentha viridisLabiateaecarminative, diaphoretic, diuretic,
herb
carvone, limonene, pinene
SpeedwellflowersVeronica officinalisScrophulariaceaetonic, alterative, diuretic, expectorant,
diaphoretic
Spicebushleaves,
twigs
Lindera benzoinLauraceaetea, perfume, anthelmintic, antipyretic
Spikenard,
American
rootAralia racemosa, A.
spinosa
Araliaceaemild stimulant, alterative, expectorant,
flavoring
starch, pectin, resin, active
compound not isolated
Star AniseseedsIllicium verumMagnoliaceaespice, mild stimulant, carminativeanethole, phellandrene
StevialeavesStevia rebaudianaCompositaesweetenerstevioside (a diterpene
glycoside)
Storaxgum resinLiquidambar styracifluaHammamelidaceaebreath sweetenerstoresin, benzoates,
cinnamates, cinnamic acid,
styrene
StrawberryleavesFragaria vesca, F. spp.Rosaceaemild astringent, nutritive,
antihistamine catalyst
vitamin C, minerals,
catechins
StrychnineseedsStrychnos nux-vomicaLoganiaceaecatalyst, spinal stimulant, tonic, can
can cause rapid pulse, convulsions,
death
strychnine
SumacfruitsRhus glabra, R.
aromatica, R. typhina, R.
spp.
Anacardiaceaetea, astringentalbumin, gum, tannin, resin,
malic acid
Sweet CicelyrootOsmorrhiza odorata, O.
spp., Myrrhis odorata
Umbelliferaearomatic, carminative, expectorant,
stomachic
anise-like volatile oil
Tamarindseed pulpTamarindus indicaLeguminosaesour flavoring, soup thickener,
curries, chutneys
citric, malic acids, potassium,
gum, pectin, grape sugar
TansyherbTanacetum vulgareCompositaebitter tonic, anthelmintic, abortifacient,
can cause convulsions
resins, thujone, camphor,
borneol
TarragonleavesArtemisia dracunculus, A.
dracunculoides
Compositaeherb
TealeavesThea sinensis, Camellia
sinensis
Theaceae,
Ternstroemiaceae
CNS stimulant, anticarcinogen, can
cause nervousness, can cause
cardiac strain
xanthines
Tea TreefoliageMelaleuca quinquenervia, M. cajuputi, M. alternifolia, M. spp., Leptospermum ericoides, L. petersonii, L. scoparium, L. spp. Myrtaceaetimber, tea, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, antiseptic, anthelmintic, mild stimulant, vulnerary, expectorant, various essential oils (cajuput, niaoli from Leptospermum spp., tea-tree oil from Melaleuca spp.), counter-irritant, elevates blood pressure cineol, terpineol, valeric, benzoic and butyric aldehydes
TeaberryfruitGaultheria procumbensEricaceaetea, spice, carminative, anti-
rheumatic, anticarcinogen, diuretic
methyl salicylate
ThymeleavesThymus vulgarisLabiateaecarminative, antiseptic, expectorant,
rubefacient
thymol, carvacrol, cymene,
pinene
TobaccoleavesNicotiana tobaccum, N.
attenuata, N. spp.
Solanaceaestimulant-depressant, can cause
dependance, lung cancer, heart
disease
nicotine
Tonka BeanseedsCoumarouna odorataLeguminoseaeperfumes, vanilla adulterant, toxic,
hemmorragic
coumarins
TurmericrhizomesCurcuma longa, C.
domestica
Zingiberaceaecurries, condiments, dyecurcumin, cinnamoids,
turmerone, alpha-
phellandrene, sabinene,
cineol, borneol
ValerianrootValeriana officinalis, V.
spp.
Valerianaceaenarcotic, antispasmodic, tranquilizer,
sedative
low MW bornyl esters,
camphene, velerines, pinene,
limonene, valepotriat
VanillapodsVanilla planifoliaOrchidaceaespice, fragrancevanillin, vanillic acid
Vanilla GrassleavesHeirochloa odorataGramineaefragrance, liquers, hemmorragiccoumarins
Verbena, LemonleavesLippia citriodora, Aloysia
triphylla
Verbenaceaeteas, potpourris, sachets, drinks,
garnish
Vervainflowers,
leaves
Verbena officinalisVerbenaceaeantipyretic, diaphoretic, expectorant,
astringent, antispasmodic, vulnerary,
galactagogue, aphrodisiac, tea
verbenalin
Violet, Sweetabove-
ground
parts
Viola odorata, Viola spp.Violaceaedye, perfume, aperient, acid-base
indicator, anticarcinogen, cough
syrup, nutritive, anodyne
flavonoids, salycilates
WasabirootWasabi japonicaCruciferaespice and condiment used in
Japanese cuisine
Water EryngorootEryngium aquaticumUmbelliferaediuretic, mild stimulant, diaphoretic,
expectorant, emetic in large doses)
WillowbarkSalix alba, S. spp.Salicaceaeastringent, analgesic, antipyretic,
ornamental, aromatic tonic, sedative,
can cause ulcers
salicylates
Witch HazeltwigsHammamelis virginianaHammamelidaceaeexternally as astringent, hemostaticgallitannins
Woodruff, Sweetwhole plantAsperula odorataRubiaceaepot pourri fixative, May wine flavor,
hemmorragic, vitamin K antagonist
coumarins, asperuloside,
tannins
WormseedtopsChenopodium botrysChenopodiaceaedried arrangements, pot pourri,
anthelmintic, ~toxic
ascaridiol
Wormwoodtops, leavesArtemisia absinthiumCompositaecordials, narcotic, anthelmintic,
antiseptic, diaphoretic
thujone
Yarrowflowering
tops
Achillea millefoliumCompositaeantiseptic, astringent, hemostatic,
tonic, anti-itching agent
Yerba de MatéleavesIlex paraguaiensisAquifoliaceaeCNS stimulant, can cause
nervousness
caffeine, theobromine
Yerba de SantaleavesEriodictyon californicumHydrophyllaceaeexpectorant, tonic, cough syruperiodictyol

Compile by George Wooten (Botanist), ©1998-2008

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