Herbs, Parts Used, Properties & Uses

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Common Name
Parts Used
Latin Name
Family
Properties & Uses
Chemical Constituent
Abelmosk seeds Hibiscus moschatus Malvaceae nervine, perfume, aphrodisiac, demulcent
Acacia gum resin Acacia senegal, A. vera Leguminoseae gum, sweets, adhesives, demulcent gums, tannins
Alfalfa leaves, sprouts Medicago sativa Leguminosae nutritive protein
Allspice seeds Pimenta officinalis Myrtaceae spice, carminative eugenol, cineole, caryophyllene
Allspice, Carolina bark Calycanthus floridus Calycanthaceae fragrance, spice, cinnamon substitute, antispasmodic
Aloe leaves Aloe barbadoensis, A. vera var. officinalis Liliaceae antiseptic, burn ointment, purgative, GI irritant, not for pregnant barbaloin O-pentosides, aloinosides, chrysophanic acid, cinnamic acids
Anatto seeds Bixa orellana Bixaceae tasteless yellow food dye
Angelica root Angelica archangelica, A. sinensis, A. spp. Umbelliferae spice, candies, expectorant, carminative, diaphoretic, mild stimulant, antibacterial angleic, fumaric, caffeic, chrorogenic acids, angelicol, angelicin
Angostura bark Angostura febrifuga, Galipea officinalis Rutaceae bitter stomachic, appetite stimulant, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, drinks quinolines: cusparine, cuspareine, galipine, galipodine, galipoline
Anise seeds Pimpinella anisum Umbelliferae spice, carminative, diuretic, diaphoretic, expectorant anethole
Arnica petals Arnica montana, A. spp. Compositeae vulnerary, external use only volatile oil, arnicin, arnisterol, anthoxanthine, tannin, resin
Arrowroot root Maranta arundinacea Marantaceae culinary, sweetener, anti-diarrheal starch
Arthritis Root root Harpagophytum procumbens Pedaliaceae alterative, llithotriptic, stimulant
Asafoetida resin Ferula assa-foetida Leguminoseae carminative, expectorant, candies ferulic, tannic esters, pinene, vanillin, gum, oil
Astragalus various parts Astragalus gummifer, A. glycphyullus, A. sinicus, A. spp. Leguminosae Chinese medicinal (A. sinica), gums, lotions (A. gummifer), some with selenium or alkaloid toxicity
Balm-of-Gilead buds Populus candicans, P. balsamifera Salicace wound sealer, expectorant, antiseptic propolis, sap
Balsam-Apple fruit Momordica balsamina Cucurbitaceae onamental, fragrance
Barberry bark, fruits Berberis vulgaris Berberidaceae tonic, laxative, refrigerant, antiseptic, stomachic berberine
Basil, Sweet leaves Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum spp. Labiateae spice, mild stimulant ocimene (an open chain C-10 terpene)
Bay Leaf leaves Laurus nobilis Lauraceae spice, carminative, astringent long-chain esters
Bayberry bark Myrica cerifera, M. gale, M. pennsylvanica, M. californica, M. spp. Myricaceae astringent, emetic, mild stimulant, sialagogue, hemostatic, dye, insecticide, candle wax fragrance resin, tannin, gum, starch, palmitic, myristic, lauric acids
Belladonna whole plant Atropa belladonna Solanaceae antisecretory, mydriatic, antispasmodic, stimulant-depressant, hallucinogen, psychotic, delusinogen atropine, scopolamine
Bergamot leaves Monarda didyma, M. citriodora, M. spp. Labiateae tea, fragrance, mild stimulant, carminative l-linalool acetic ester, d-limonene, carvacrol, cymene
Betel Nuts seeds Areca catechu Palmaceae parasympathomimetic, stimulant-depressant, dye, narcotic, can cause cardiac strain arecolines (compounds related to the tobacco alkaloids)
Betony leaves Stachys officinalis Labiateae appetite stimulant, cordial, tea
Birch bark, sap Betula lenta Betulaceae counterirritant, antipyretic, analgesic, irritates ulcers, can cause salicylate poisoning methyl salicylate
Birthroot root Trillium pendulum Liliaceae vaginal antihemmorragic, mucous membrane irritant trilline, trillarin (a diglycoside resembling diosgenin)
Bloodroot sap, root Sanguinaria canadensis Papaveraceae dye, demulcent, expectorant, smooth muscle stimulant, exacerbates glaucoma sanguinarine, chelidonine
Boldo leaves Peumus boldus Monimiaceae fragrance, tea, carminative, formerly used in hepatic dysfunction, gastric stimulant volatile oil, boldine (an aporphine)
Boneset leaves Eupatorium perfoliatum Compositeae antimalarial, diaphoretic, mucilage, emetic, depletes blood sugars, chronic toxicity wax, tremetrol, resin, tannin
Borage leaves Borago officinalis Boraginaceae potherb, diuretic, demulcent, emollient, may have chronic toxicity pyrrolizidines
Buchu leaves Barosma betulina, Agathosma spp. Rutaceae tea, fragrance, weak diuretic, urinary antiseptic, diaphoretic diosphenol, volatile oils, flavonoids
Burdock roots, leaves, stems Arctium lappa Compositae diaphoretic, diuretic, demulcent volatile oils, inulin, tannin, arctiin (a glycoside)
Burnet, Salad leaves Sanguisorba officinalis (Poterium sanguisorba) Rosaceae vulnerary, salad herb, tonic, astringent, hemostatic, diaphoretic, herb beer, cordials
Burra Gokeroo seeds Pedalium murex Pedaliaceae GI antiseptic, ganglial stimulant, male aphrodisiac, tonic, antispasmodic
Calamus root Acorus calamus Araceae anthelmintic, stimulant, carminative, mild hallucinogen, carcinogen asarone, eugenol, pinene, camphene, caryophyllene
Calendula flowers Calendula officinalis Compositeae vulnerary, astringent, diaphoretic, antispasmodic carotenoids, calendulin, a saponin of calendin
California Poppy sap Eschscholtzia californica Papaveraceae sedative, smooth muscle stimulant, exacerbates glaucoma coptisine, sanguinarine
Calumba root Cocculus palmatus, Jateorrhiza palmata Menispermaceae bitter tonic, toxic?, smooth muscle stimulant, exacerbates glaucoma C. indicus contains picrotoxin, menispermine, cocculine, quarternary berberine-type alkaloids
Camphor bark Cinnamomum camphora Lauraceae incense, counter-irritant, anaesthetic, antiseptic, narcotic, abuse can cause liver and kidney damage 2 – bornanone, a C-10 terpene
Capers seeds Capparis spinosa Capparidaceae spice, seasoning
Caraway seeds Carum carvi Umbelliferae spice, carminative, anti-griping agent, pedullicide, mild CNS depressant carvone, limonene
Cardamon seeds Elettaria cardamomun Zingiberaceae spice, carminative cineole, terpineole, terpinyl acetate
Carob roasted seeds Ceratonis siliqua Leguminoseae spice, condiment, sweetener
Carrot whole plant Daucus carota Umbelliferae spice, diuretic, purgative for bladder, antilithic vitamin A, caryophyllene
Cascara sagrada bark Rhamnus purshiana Rhamnaceae bitter tonic, strong laxative anthraquinone glycosides
Castor Bean bean oil Ricinus communis Euphorbiaceae purgative, source of castor oil triglycerides of fatty acids, mostly ricinoleic and stearic
Catnip leaves Nepeta cataria Labiateae tea, feline sex stimulant, antispasmodic, nervine, mild CNS stimulant nepetalactone, citral, limonene, geraniol, citronellal, nerol
Celery seeds Apium graveolens Umbelliferae spice, digestive aid, antiseptic, CNS agent, antispasmodic sedonic anhydrides, nitrates
Centaury whole herb Centaurium erythraea, C. umbellatum, C. spp., Erythraea centaurium Gentianaceae aromatic, appetite stimulant, bitter tonic, stomachic, blood-purifier erythro-centaurin (bitter principle), eritaurin, valeric acid
Chamomile, Roman flowers Anthemis nobilis (Chamaemelum nobile) Compositeae tea, mild stimulant, appetite stimulant, bitter tonic, emetic anthemides, tiglic esters
Chamomile, German flowers Matricaria chamomilla Compositeae tea, sedative, antipyretic, mild CNS depressant azulenes, sesquiterpenes, alpha-bisabolol
Chapparal leaves Larria mexicana, L. divaricata Zygophyllaceae antiseptic, alterative, expectorant, diuretic, antibiotic, antioxidant NDGA (a powerful antioxidant)
Cherry, Wild bark Prunus serotina Rosaceae aroma, tea, expectorant, cough syrup, stomachic cyanogenic glycosides, emulsin
Chervil leaves Anthriscus cerefolium Umbelliferae spice, salad herb anise-like terpenes
Chia seeds, sprouts Salvia hispanica, S. columbariae Labiateae bulk former, nutritive
Chickweed above-ground parts Stellaria media, S. spp. Caryophyllaceae demulcent, refrigerant, poultice, nutritive
Chicory roasted root Cichorium intybus Compositeae coffee additive fructosans
Chives roots Allium schoenoprasum Amaryllidaceae spice, potherb allyl disulfides
Chrysanthemum, Edible leaves Chrysanthemum coronarium Compositae oriental vegetable, potherb
Chufa rhizomes Cyperus esculentus Cyperaceae flour substitute starch
Cilantro leaves Coriandrum sativum Umbelliferae culinary herb, see Coriander for seed linalool, malic acid, tannin, mucilage
Cinnamon bark Cinnamomum zeylanicum Lauraceae spice, tea, fragrance, perfume cinnamaldehydes
Citronella leaves Cymbopogon nardus Gramineae insect repellant, perfume citronellal
Citrus peel Citrus aurantium, C. limon Rutaceae candies, nutritive, spice, carminative flavonoids, limonene, wax, ketonic acids, aldehydes, esters, alcohols
Clover, Red tops Trifolium pratense Leguminoseae tea, vitamin, protein proteins
Cloves dried flower buds Syzygium aromaticum, Caryophyllus aromaticus Myrtaceae spice, dental anaesthetic, antiseptic, aphrosidisiac, stimulant, ~allergen eugenol
Cocoa woody fruit Theobroma cacao Sterculiaceae cocoa drinks, candies, emollient butter, demulcent, CNS stimulant, can produce nervousness, sleeplessness fat, mucliage, theobromine (a xanthine)
Coffee roasted beans Coffea arabica Rubiaceae CNS stimulant, can cause nervousness, irritates ulcers & mucous membranes caffeine
Cohosh, Black root Cimifuga racemosa Ranunculaceae pesticide, bitter astringent, mild emetic, sedative ferulic, palmitic, oleic acids, resin, tannin, cimifugin
Cohosh, Blue root Caulophyllum thalictroides Berberidaceae oxytocic, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, diuretic, not for pregnant leontin, caulophylline, saponins, resins
Cola Nuts fruit Cola nitida, C. acuminata Sterculiaceae analeptic, aphrodisiac, CNS stimulant, diuretic, astringent, irritates ulcers & mucous membranes, can cause nervousness xanthines, gum, catechols
Coltsfoot leaves Tussilago farfara Compositeae demulcent, expectorant, emollient, smokable tannin, saponins, resin, pectin, caotchouc
Comfrey leaves Symphytum officinale Boraginaceae poultices, internal demulcent, diuretic, laxative, ~allergen pyrrolidizines, allantoin, mucilage, tannin
Coriander seeds Coriandrum sativum Umbelliferae spice, carminative, antipyretic, see Cilantro for leaf linalool, malic acid, tannin, mucilage
Costmary whole herb Chrysanthemum balsamita Compositae fragrance, teas, herb pillows, soups, bitter stomachic, tonic, blood purifier
Cramp Bark bark Viburnum opulus Caprifoliaceae PMS antispasmodic, astringent, nervine
Cubeb dried unripe fruit Piper cubeba Piperaceae spice, aphrodisiac, to heal mucous membranes (as a counterirritant?) terpenes, sesquiterpenes, furanobenze, dipentene, cadinene
Cumin seeds Cuminum cyminum Umbelliferae spice, liniment para-substituted isopropylbenzenes, cuminaldehyde
Damiana leaves Turnera aphrodisiaca, T. diffusa Turneraceae tea, smokable, aphrodisiac, euphoriant, antipyretic, tonic, purgative, GI irritant volatile oil
Dandelion whole plant Taraxacum officinale Compositeae hepatic tonic, diuretic, stomachic, antilithic, astringent, cholagogue taraxerol, choline, levulin, inulin, pectin
Devil’s Club roots, bark, leaves Oplopanax horridus Araliaceae stomachic, antispasmodic, vulnerary, toothache agent, tonic, charm
Dill seeds, flowers Anethum graveolens Umbelliferae spice, carminative, stomachic, nervine dillapiole
Dita bark Alstonia scholaris (Echites scholaris) Apocynaceae tonic, astringent, anthelmintic, antimalarial, hallucinogen chlorogenine, echitamine, echitenine, alsonine, porphyrine
Dittany, Maryland leaves Cunila origanoides Labiateae spice, herb, tea
Dittany of Crete leaves Origanum dictamnus Umbelliferae spice, antiseptic, preservative carvacrol, thymol
Dragon’s Blood tree resin Daemonorops draco Palmaceae charm, dye, tannin source sap
Echinacea rhizome Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia, E. spp. Compositeae alterative, contact parisiticide, antiseptic, sialogogue, analgesic, immune system stimulant inulin, sucrose, 2-methlytetradecadienes, echinacein, caffeic glycoside
Elderberry flowers, fruits, bark Sambucus nigra, S. canadensis, S. cerulea Caprifoliaceae aperient, diuretic, dye, diaphoretic, cough syrup, PMS antispasmodic, sedative, HCN toxicity, esp. in bark of N. Am. spp. cyanogenic glycoside, sambuline, viburnic acid, tyrosine, tannic acid
Elecampane root Inula helenium Compositeae tonic, charm, expectorant, diuretic, astringent inulin, alantol, helenin, alantic acid, resin
Epazote leaves Chenopodium ambrosioides Chenopodiaceae seasoning, anthelmintic, toxic in quantity
Eucalyptus leaves, pods Eucalyptus globulus Myrtaceae spice, astringent, anti-diarrheal, expectorant volatile oil, resins, tannin, eucalyptic acid, rutin
Evening Primrose leaves Oenothera biennis, O. spp. Onagraceae astringent, sedative, anti-aging agent, PMS treatment, potherb gamma-linoleic acid (GLA,a prostaglandin precursor)
Eyebright leaves Euphrasia officinalis Scrophulariaceae alterative, astringent for eye strain tannin, bitter principle
False Unicorn root Helonias dioica (Chamaelirium luteum), H. luteum Liliaceae formerly used for conception, sexual tonic, emetic, sialogogue, parisiticide, ~toxic to livestock
Fennel seeds Foeniculum vulgare Umbelliferae spice, digestive aid, carminative, expectorant, mild stimulant, cold treatment anethole
Fenugreek leaves Trigonella foenum-graecum Leguminoseae spice, bulk laxative, horse’s cure-all, demulcent, aphrodisiac, astringent, emollient, tonic, expectorant, galactagogue, GI irritant protein, choline, phosphates, trigonelline, volatile oil
Feverfew whole plant Pyrethrum parthenium, Chrysanthemum parthenium Asteraceae tonic, emmenagogue, anthelmintic, mild stimulant, emetic, can cause headache & CNS disturbances pyrethrins, insecticidal compounds
Flax seeds Linum usitatissimum, L. spp. Linaceae demulcent, emmollient, bulk former, mucilage, laxative mucilage, wax, tannin, gum, cyanogenic glycosides
Fleeceflower root Polygonum multiflorum Polygonaceae general and reproductive female tonic, diuretic oxalates
Frankincense gum resin Boswellia carteri Burseraceae perfume, incense volatile oil, resins, gum, bassorin
Galangal rhizome Alpinia galanga, A. officinarum, Kaempferia galanga Zingiberaceae respiratory stimulant, toothache agent, demulcent, antibacterial, hallucinogen flavonoids
Ganja flowering tops Cannabis sativa Cannabinaceae appetite stimulant, antiemetic, euphoriant, mild hallucinogen, can cause tachycardia, lowers blood pressure tetrahydrocannibinol (THC), an oxygenated terpene derivative
Garlic bulbs Allium sativum Amaryllidaceae spice, bacteriostat, alterative, antibiotic, expectorant, antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, used for heart benefits, GI irritant allyl disulfides
Gentian root Gentiana lutea Gentianaceae bitter tonic, stomachic, appetite mild stimulant, digestive aid water-soluble phenolic glycosides, gentiopicrin, gentiamarin, gentiin
Geranium, Scented leaves Pelargonium odoratissimum Geraniaceae mouthwash, ointment geraniol esters, citronellol, linalool
Gill-Over-The-Ground leaves Glechoma hederacea Labiateae mild stimulant, tonic, beer flavoring
Ginger root Zingiber officinale Zingiberaceae spice, carminative, diaphoretic, mild stimulant, GI irritant citral, zingerone, sesquiterpenes, bisabolene
Ginger, Wild rhizomes Asarum canadense, A. caudatum Aristolochiaceae mild stimulant, stomachic methyl eugenol
Ginkgo leaves, seeds Ginkgo biloba Ginkgoaceae roasted seeds as a culinary, leaves as a memory enhancer
Ginseng root Panax ginseng Araliaceae tea, mental stimulant, alterative, stomachic, tonic, can lower blood sugar gingenosides, sapogenins, ginsenin, mucilage, resin
Goldenrod, Sweet leaves Solidago odora Compositae teas anise-like volatile oil
Goldenseal root Hydrastis canadensis Ranunculaceae astringent, hemostatic, douche, antibiotic, emmenagogue, antiseptic, smooth muscle stimulant, dyspeptic, hypotensive hydrastine, berberine-type alkaloids
Goldthread root, plant Coptis trifolia, C. groenlandica, C. spp. Ranunculaceae bitter tonic, oral hemostatic berberine, coptine
Gotu-Kola above-ground parts Hydrocotyle asiatica var. minor, (Centella asiatica) Umbelliferae memory stimulant, nervine, psychic energizer, alterative, antipyretic, tonic, diuretic
Grains of Paradise seeds Aframomum melegueta Zingiberaceae spice, cordial
Gravel Root root Eupatorium purpureum Compositeae bitter, strong antilithic, diuretic, astringent
Guarana leaves Paulinia cupana Sapindaceae mild CNS stimulant, can cause nervousness, irritates ulcers, mucous membranes xanthines
Hawthorn fruit Crataegus monogyna, C. spp. Rosaceae cardiac tonic, diuretic, astringent, antispasmodic, sedative triterpene acids, flavonoids, choline, acetylcholine, ascorbic acid
Henna leaves Lawsonia inermis, L. alba, L. spinosa Lythraceae hair dye, externally for impotence, fungicide, ~allergen lawsone
Hibiscus stems, flowers Hibiscus spp. Malvaceae tea, mild stimulant, fiber mats, rope flavonoids
Hops leaves Humulus lupulus Cannabinaceae tea, used in brewing beer, antiseptic, stomachic, diuretic, nervine, carminative, anodyne, cholagogue, sedative, smokable humulene (a sesquiterpene), lupulon
Horehound leaves Marrubium vulgare Labiateae expectorant, carminative, mild stimulant, charm, diaphoretic, tonic, candy tannin, marrubin (a bitter hydroxy diterpene lactone)
Horse Mint whole plant Collinsonia canadensis Labiateae gentle tonic, mild stimulant, diuretic, anti-diarrheal resin, saponin, tannin, mucilage
Horseradish roots Armoracia lapathifolia, A. rusticana, Rorippa armoracia, Cochleria amoracia Brassicaceae spice, herb, diaphoretic, diuretic, stomachic, expectorant myrosin, sinigrin, choline esters of allylisothiocyanates, N-sulfates
Horsetail foliage Equisetum arvense, E. spp. Equisetaceae astringent, abrasive, diuretic, mineral source, can cause muscle weakness, abnormal pulse, hypertension silica, nicotine, aconitic acid, equisitine
Hyssop leaves Hyssopus officinalis Labiateae pungent spice, poultice, expectorant, mild stimulant, diaphoretic pinene, sesquiterpenes
Indigo, Wild root, leaves Baptisia tinctoria Leguminoaeae purgative, emetic, vulnerary, can cause heart arrythmias glucosides: baptisin, baptitoxine (cytisine), alkaloid
Iris root Iris X florentina Iridaceae purgative, floral fixative, ~toxic, ~allergen iridin, oleoresin, tannin, gum, camphoraceous substance
Irish Moss whole plant Chondrus crispus (various seaweeds) Gigartinaceae (seaweed) demulcent, nutrient, diet aid, bulk former, emollient polysaccharides
Jalap root Ipomoea purga Convolvulaceae drastic purgative resin, gum, sugar
Jasmine flowers Jasminum officinale Oleaceae tea, incense, florals jasmone
Jujube fruit Zizyphus jujuba, Ziziphus jujuba Rhamnaceae flavoring for candies
Juniper fruits Juniperus communis Pinaceae urinary and general antiseptic, flavoring for gin, diuretic, overdose can cause kidney and personality disorders, convulsions, catharsis terpinenol, alpha-pinene, camphene, cadinene
Kava-kava root Piper methysticum Piperaceae stimulant tea, or narcotic when thoroughly chewed, causes skin lesions amongst the habituated methysticin, yangonin, dihydrokawain
Kelp whole plant Laminaria spp., Fucus spp., Sargassum spp., Macrosytica spp., etc. Seaweed nutritive, mineral source, demulcent, bulk laxative, can cause water retention iodine, bromine, alginic acid
Khat fresh leaves Catha edulis Celastraceae CNS & spinal stimulant, can cause tachycardia & nervousness choline, cathine, cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine
Khus-Khus roots Vetiveria zizanioides, Andropogon muricatus Gramineae perfume fixative, insect repellant vetiverone, a C-15 terpene, vetivenoids, palmitic, benzoic acids
Kinnikinnick leaves Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Ericaceae smokable, diuretic, antiseptic, GI astringent, mild CNS depressant arbutin (hydrolyses to hydroquinolone), flavonoids, gallic, malic acids
Kuthmithi whole plant Wiltharia somnifera Solanaceae sedative, tranquilizer, tonic somniferine, possibly other toxic alkaloids
Labrador Tea leaves Ledum palustre, L. groenlandicum, L. glandulosum Ericaceae bitter astringent, vulnerary, can cause cause kidney disorders ledol
Lad’s Love leaves Artemisia abrotanum Compositeae culinary, astringent, bitter tonic
Lady’s Mantle leaves Alchemilla vulgaris Rosaceae astringent, hemostatic, vulnerary tannins
Lady’s Slipper root Cyprepedium pubescens, Cypripedium spp. Orchidaceae nervine, antispasmodic, sedative, overharvesting is leading to species endangerment tannin, resins
Lavender flowers Lavandula vera, Lavandula spp. Labiateae sachets, perfumes, bath oils eucalyptol, borneol, camphor, linalool, terpineol
Lemon Balm leaves Melissa officinalis Labiateae spice, herb, fragrance, diaphoretic, sedative citral, linalool, geraniol
Lemon Grass leaves Cymbopogon citratus Gramineae incense, pesticide, perfume, carminative methyl heptenone, citronellal, terpene alcohols
Lettuce, Wild leaves Lactuca virosa, Lactuca quercina Compositeae mild narcotic, analgesic, sedative lactucarine
Licorice root Glycyrrhiza glabra Leguminoseae aphrodisiac, stomachic, aperient, expectorant, antispasmodic, androgenic steroid agent, can cause mineral retantion, hypertension glycyrrhizin (a mild mineral corticoid), gum, tannin, pentacyclic terpenes
Life Everlasting leaves Gnaphalium polycephalum Asteraceae astringent, vulnerary for mouth
Linden flowers, leaves Tilia europaea, T. spp. Tiliaceae stomachic, sialogogue
Lobelia leaves Lobelia inflata Lobeliaceae expectorant, stimulant-depressant, emetic, can cause tolerance Alpha-lobeline (a di-(hydroxy-ethyl-phenyl) – 2 – piperidine, a compound related to tobacco alkaloids)
Lotus flower capsules Nelumbo spp. Nelumbonaceae culinary, soup thickener starch
Lovage root Ligusticum levisticum, Levisticum officinale Umbelliferae mild stimulant, carminative, emmenagogue, stomachic
Love Vine whole plant Cuscuta spp. Cuscutaceae laxative
Ma-Huang leaves Ephedra sinica Gnetaceae decongestant, CNS stimulant, can cause nervousness, hypertension ephedrine
Madder roots Rubia tinctorum Rubiaceae alizarin crimson dye anthraquinones
Magnolia bark Magnolia glauca Magnoliaceae bitter tonic, diaphoretic
Maha flowers Quararibea funebris Bombacaceae perfume, flavoring for chocolate drinks at funerals & festivals, hallucinogen 5 – membered cyclic enols and enamines
Malva flowers Malva spp. Malvaceae black potpourri color pectin, tannin
Marjoram leaves Origanum vulgare Labiateae spice, carminative, digestive aid limonene, other terpenes
Marshmallow root Althea officinalis Malvaceae demulcent, emollient, poultice asparagine, mucilage, sugar, pectin
Matico leaves Piper angustifolium Piperaceae astringent, sex stimulant, urinary antiseptic (GI irritant?) Matico camphor, asarone
Mistletoe stems Phoradendron flavescens Loranthaceae charm, emetic, hemorragic, can cause CV collapse, weak pulse, vasodilation, smooth muscle contractions tyramine, phenethylamines
Mormon Tea whole plant Ephedra vulgaris, E. trifurca, E. spp. Gnetaceae nasal decongestant, CNS stimulant, can cause nervousness ephedrine
Morning Glory seeds Ipomoea violacea, Argyriea nervosa Convolvulaceae hallucinogen, purgative, abortifacient, can cause gangrene lysergamides
Motherwort above-ground parts Leonurus cardiaca Labiateae nervine, cardiac tonic, emmenagogue, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, laxative, PMS nervine
Mugwort leaves, flowers Artemisia vulgaris Compositeae acupuncture moxybustion, dream herb, nervine, diuretic, diaphoretic
Muira Pauma wood shavings Liriosma ovata, Acanthea virilis Olacaceae aphrodisiac aromatic resin, muirapaumine, fat
Mullein leaves Verbascum thapsus Scrophulariaceae smokable, demulcent, rubefacient, astringent, counter-irritant, expectorant saponins
Mustard seeds Brassica nigra Cruciferae spice, poultice, counterirritant, carminative, rubefacient myrosin, sinigrin, choline esters of allylisothiocyanates, N-sulfates
Myrrh gum resin Commiphora myrra Burseraceae incense, local stimulant, antiseptic, expectorant, mouthwash, embalming fluid, carminative resin, acetic, formic, myrrholic acids
Myrtle leaves Myrtus communis Myrtaceae fragrance, infusion, gargle eucalyptol, d-pinene
Neem seeds, leaves Azadirachta indica (Melia azadirachta) Meliaceae timber, antibacterial, antiemetic, soap, toothpaste, insecticide, antipyretic, vulnerary glycerides, nimbin, a terpenic ester, bitters
Nettles leaves Urtica dioica Labiateae potherb, vitamin, protein, alterative, antiseptic, hemostatic, nutritive vitamins, A, C, protein
Nutmeg seed, aril (as mace) Myristica fragrans Myristaceae emmenagogue, spice, aphrodisiac, mild stimulant, mild hallucinogen myristicin, elemicin, eugenols
Oat Straw stems, leaves Avena sativa Gramineae nutrient, demulcent, antidepressant, nervine, tonic, antispasmodic, digestive aid, motor ganglial stimulant albumin, gum, protein, saponin, avenin
Onion bulbs Allium sativum Amaryllidaceae culinary, spice allyl disulfides
Oregano leaves Origanum major, O. vulgare Labiateae spice, seasoning herb terpenes
Osha roots Ligusticum porteri Umbelliferae stomachic, respiratory agent, antipyretic, snakebite agent
Parsley leaves, seeds Petroselinum crispum Umbelliferae herb, diuretic, can raise blood pressure pinene, apiole
Passion Flower leaves Passiflora incarnata, P. edulis Passifloraceae smokable, spinal depressant, respiratory stimulant, nervine, antispasmodic, sedative, diaphoretic beta-carbolines, cyanogenic glycosides, contains HCN
Patchouli leaves Pogostemon cablin Labiateae incense, cosmetic patchoulene, azulene, eugenol, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, sesquiterpene
Pau d’Arco Tabebuia impetiginosa Bignoniaceae immune stimulant, anti-allergen, anti-carcinogen, anti-fungal, avoid if pregnant
Pennyroyal leaves Mentha pulegium Labiateae herb, carminative, diaphoretic, pedicullicide, mild CNS depressant, overdose can cause kidney damage pulegone
Pepper, Red fruit Capsicum tetragonum, C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. spp. Solanaceae spice, GI stimulant, nerve ending stimulant, counter-irritant, irritates ulcers and mucous membranes vanillyl noneamides, carotenoids
Peppercorns fruit Piper nigrum Piperaceae spice, digestive stimulant, mucous membrane irritant piperidines, piperazines
Peppermint leaves Mentha piperita Labiateae tea, spice, candies, antispasmodic, carminative menthol, terpenes
Pink Root root Spigelia marilandica Loganiaceae anthelmintic, can cause dizziness, heart palpitations spigeline, resin, tannin
Plantain, Narrow leaves Plantago lanceolata Plantaginaceae ointment for exzema, burns, hemmorroids, bowel pain, laxative, see Psillium for Plantago seed xylin (a xylopyranose derivative related to cellulose)
Pollen pollen from bees Apis mellifera Insect product sweetener, vitamin, nutrient sugars, vitamins B & C, minerals, hormones
Poppy seeds Papaver somniferum Papaveraceae culinary herb albuminoids, ethiodol, lipiodol, devoid of morphine alkaloids
Prickly Ash stem bark Zanthoxylum (Xanthoxyllum) americanum, Z. clava-herculis Rutaceae tonic, antispasmodic, flavoring, alterative, rubefacient, emmenagogue, diaphoretic, circulatory stimulant
Prickly Poppy leaves Argemone mexicana Papaveraceae smooth muscle stimulant, causes capillary dilation, can irritate glaucoma, emetic, purgative protopine, berberine, dihydrosanguinarine, sanguinarine
Prince’s Pine whole plant Chimaphila umbellata, C. spp. Ericaceae alterative, diuretic, astringent, tonic chimaphilin, arbutin, erecolin, tannins
Psillium fruit, husks Plantago ovata Plantaginaceae antidiarrheal, bulk demulcent, laxative, emollient, expectorant, astringent, see plantain for Plantago leaf colloidal mucilage
Pumpkin seeds Cucurbita pepo Cucurbitaceae GI stimulant, sexual hormone production stimulant protein, unsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrate, phosphorus
Raspberry leaves Rubus ideaus, Rubus spp. Rosaceae nutritive tea, antispasmodic, astringent citric acid, tannins
Rhubarb stalks Rheum officinale, R. palmatum Polygonaceae laxative, astringent, sialogogue, stomachic anthraquinones
Rose fruits (hips) Rosa canina, R. spp. Rosaceae vitamin C source, tea, astringent, aperient vitamin C, geraniol, citronellol
Rosemary leaves Rosmarinus officinalis Labiateae spice, herb, carminative, GI irritant pinene, camphene, borneol, & esters
Rue leaves Ruta graveolens Rutaceae nervine, anthelmintic, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, rubefacient, skin and kidney irritant methyl nonyl ketone & esters, ketones, tannins, methyl anthranilate
Rue, Syrian seeds Peganum harmala Zygophyllaceae hallucinogen beta-carbolines
Safflower flowers Carthamus tinctorius Compositae floral, food dye, diaphoretic carthamin
Saffron flower stigmas Crocus sativus Iridaceae spice, dye, respiratory stimulant, aphrodisiac, rubefacient, can cause bradycardia alpha-crocin (a gentobiose of crocetin)
Sage, Garden leaves Salvia officinalis Labiateae spice, antisecretory, insect repellant, anthelmintic, astringent, perfume thujone, camphor, salvene
Sagebrush leaves Artemisia tridentata Compositae perfume, antibacterial camphor
Saint John’s Wort tops Hypericum perforatum, H. spp. Hypericaceae external astringent, alterative, nervine, sedative, antidepressant, antiviral, can cause dermatitis through ultraviolet light sensitivity hypericin, an 8-ringed compound
Sandalwood wood chips Santalum album Santalaceae incense, fumigant santalol and esters, bicyclic C-15 terpenes
Sarsaparilla roots Smilax officinalis, S. regelii, S. ornata, S. spp. Liliaceae toothache, male hormone adjunct, tonic, diaphoretic, alterative resin, oxalates, phytosterols, adrenal hormones
Sassafrass root bark Sassafrass albidum Lauraceae spice, tea, tonic, alterative, carcinogen safrole
Savory, Summer leaves Satureja hortensis Labiateae herb, garnish carvacrol
Savory, Winter leaves Satureja montana Labiateae herb, stronger than summer savory, liquers carvacrol
Saw Palmetto fruits Serenoa repens, S. serrulata Palmaceae GI stimulant, glandular stimulant, bladder analgesic, tonic, antiseptic, can cause diarrhea fatty acids and esters
Schisandra fruits Schisandra glabra, S. sp. Schisandraceae (Magnoliaceae) ornamental, tonic, sedative
Sea Holly leaves Eryngium maritmum Umbelliferae aphrodisiac, candies, nervine, alterative, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, mild stimulant, expectorant, used in kidney & bladder disease
Senna leaves, pods Cassia species Leguminoseae laxative, anthelmintic, anti-griping agent, can cause dermatitis sitosterol, anthraquinone glycosides, chrysophanic, flavonoids, emodins
Sensitive Plant leaves Mimosa pudica Leguminoseae smokable, sexual stimulant when touched (!) tryptamines
Serpolet leaves Thymus serpyphyllum Labiateae spice, antispasmodic, nervine, especially for genital nerves
Sesame seeds Sesamum orientale, S. indicum Pedaliaceae spice, aphrodisiac oil, Calcium
Shiso leaves Perilla frutescens Labiateae sushi ginger spice, herb
Skullcap whole plant Scutellaria lateriflora Labiateae smokable, sedative, antispasmodic, nervine scutellarin (a flavonoid), tannins
Slippery Elm bark Ulmus fulva Ulmaceae astringent, nutritive for invalids, demulcent mucilage, starch, oxalates, polysaccharides, tannins
Snakeroot, Indian root Polygala senega Polygalaceae purgative, expectorant, stimulates secretions
Snakeroot, Indian roots Rauwolfia serpentina Apocynaceae strong tranquilizer, strong depressant action sometimes fatal rauwolfine, serpentine
Snakeroot, Virginia root Aristolochia serpentaria Aristolochiaceae aromatic bitter, snakebite agent, emetic, can cause vertigo, abortifacient aristolochic acid, an aromatic nitrate
Solomon’s Seal root Convallaria multiflora Liliaceae tonic, demulcent, astringent, emetic, contains potent and dangerous cardioactive glycosides constituents unknown, same genus contains cardiac glycosides
Spearmint leaves Mentha viridis Labiateae carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, herb carvone, limonene, pinene
Speedwell flowers Veronica officinalis Scrophulariaceae tonic, alterative, diuretic, expectorant, diaphoretic
Spicebush leaves, twigs Lindera benzoin Lauraceae tea, perfume, anthelmintic, antipyretic
Spikenard, American root Aralia racemosa, A. spinosa Araliaceae mild stimulant, alterative, expectorant, flavoring starch, pectin, resin, active compound not isolated
Star Anise seeds Illicium verum Magnoliaceae spice, mild stimulant, carminative anethole, phellandrene
Stevia leaves Stevia rebaudiana Compositae sweetener stevioside (a diterpene glycoside)
Storax gum resin Liquidambar styraciflua Hammamelidaceae breath sweetener storesin, benzoates, cinnamates, cinnamic acid, styrene
Strawberry leaves Fragaria vesca, F. spp. Rosaceae mild astringent, nutritive, antihistamine catalyst vitamin C, minerals, catechins
Strychnine seeds Strychnos nux-vomica Loganiaceae catalyst, spinal stimulant, tonic, can can cause rapid pulse, convulsions, death strychnine
Sumac fruits Rhus glabra, R. aromatica, R. typhina, R. spp. Anacardiaceae tea, astringent albumin, gum, tannin, resin, malic acid
Sweet Cicely root Osmorrhiza odorata, O. spp., Myrrhis odorata Umbelliferae aromatic, carminative, expectorant, stomachic anise-like volatile oil
Tamarind seed pulp Tamarindus indica Leguminosae sour flavoring, soup thickener, curries, chutneys citric, malic acids, potassium, gum, pectin, grape sugar
Tansy herb Tanacetum vulgare Compositae bitter tonic, anthelmintic, abortifacient, can cause convulsions resins, thujone, camphor, borneol
Tarragon leaves Artemisia dracunculus, A. dracunculoides Compositae herb
Tea leaves Thea sinensis, Camellia sinensis Theaceae, Ternstroemiaceae CNS stimulant, anticarcinogen, can cause nervousness, can cause cardiac strain xanthines
Tea Tree foliage Melaleuca quinquenervia, M. cajuputi, M. alternifolia, M. spp., Leptospermum ericoides, L. petersonii, L. scoparium, L. spp. Myrtaceae timber, tea, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, antiseptic, anthelmintic, mild stimulant, vulnerary, expectorant, various essential oils (cajuput, niaoli from Leptospermum spp., tea-tree oil from Melaleuca spp.), counter-irritant, elevates blood pressure cineol, terpineol, valeric, benzoic and butyric aldehydes
Teaberry fruit Gaultheria procumbens Ericaceae tea, spice, carminative, anti-rheumatic, anticarcinogen, diuretic methyl salicylate
Thyme leaves Thymus vulgaris Labiateae carminative, antiseptic, expectorant, rubefacient thymol, carvacrol, cymene, pinene
Tobacco leaves Nicotiana tobaccum, N. attenuata, N. spp. Solanaceae stimulant-depressant, can cause dependance, lung cancer, heart disease nicotine
Tonka Bean seeds Coumarouna odorata Leguminoseae perfumes, vanilla adulterant, toxic, hemmorragic coumarins
Turmeric rhizomes Curcuma longa, C. domestica Zingiberaceae curries, condiments, dye curcumin, cinnamoids, turmerone, alpha-phellandrene, sabinene, cineol, borneol
Valerian root Valeriana officinalis, V. spp. Valerianaceae narcotic, antispasmodic, tranquilizer, sedative low MW bornyl esters, camphene, velerines, pinene, limonene, valepotriat
Vanilla pods Vanilla planifolia Orchidaceae spice, fragrance vanillin, vanillic acid
Vanilla Grass leaves Heirochloa odorata Gramineae fragrance, liquers, hemmorragic coumarins
Verbena, Lemon leaves Lippia citriodora, Aloysia triphylla Verbenaceae teas, potpourris, sachets, drinks, garnish
Vervain flowers, leaves Verbena officinalis Verbenaceae antipyretic, diaphoretic, expectorant, astringent, antispasmodic, vulnerary, galactagogue, aphrodisiac, tea verbenalin
Violet, Sweet above-ground parts Viola odorata, Viola spp. Violaceae dye, perfume, aperient, acid-base indicator, anticarcinogen, cough syrup, nutritive, anodyne flavonoids, salycilates
Wasabi root Wasabi japonica Cruciferae spice and condiment used in Japanese cuisine
Water Eryngo root Eryngium aquaticum Umbelliferae diuretic, mild stimulant, diaphoretic, expectorant, emetic in large doses)
Willow bark Salix alba, S. spp. Salicaceae astringent, analgesic, antipyretic, ornamental, aromatic tonic, sedative, can cause ulcers salicylates
Witch Hazel twigs Hammamelis virginiana Hammamelidaceae externally as astringent, hemostatic gallitannins
Woodruff, Sweet whole plant Asperula odorata Rubiaceae pot pourri fixative, May wine flavor, hemmorragic, vitamin K antagonist coumarins, asperuloside, tannins
Wormseed tops Chenopodium botrys Chenopodiaceae dried arrangements, pot pourri, anthelmintic, ~toxic ascaridiol
Wormwood tops, leaves Artemisia absinthium Compositae cordials, narcotic, anthelmintic, antiseptic, diaphoretic thujone
Yarrow flowering tops Achillea millefolium Compositae antiseptic, astringent, hemostatic, tonic, anti-itching agent
Yerba de MatΓ© leaves Ilex paraguaiensis Aquifoliaceae CNS stimulant, can cause nervousness caffeine, theobromine
Yerba de Santa leaves Eriodictyon californicum Hydrophyllaceae expectorant, tonic, cough syrup eriodictyol
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Source: researchgate.net

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4 thoughts on “Herbs, Parts Used, Properties & Uses”

  1. ClassyGlobal says:

    I’ve not yet seen any detailed information on FASTING. Does dr Sebi or you recommend cold turkey with only water, a progressive fasting to water only or a water and tea fast, what is the process to come out of fasting, short to long fasting, long to short fasting, intervals of fasting? Really wish there was a DONATE/PITCH IN button. You are providing priceless information. I look forward to my financial situation shifting in a manner that will support my lifestyle adjustments as it regards fueling my body. Amazing work. Many thank yous!!!

    1. Ital says:

      Hi ClassyGlobal, sorry for the late response. I wouldn’t recommend cold turkey water fasting unless you are already on a plant-based diet. Dr Sebi actually recommended fasting using the herbs, especially incorporating the Green Food Plus. He noted in a video that everyone should fast at least 12 days per year, using the Green Food Plus and also drinking juices. That being said, water fasting is very effective. If you have never fasted before it could be tough – but, because of it’s ability to help the body heal faster, it’s worth doing. For longer periods of water fasting (beyond 7 days) make sure you have supportive people around you. Some people have to build up to a longer fast, while some people prefer to just go for it. If you are eating a standard diet, then do at least one week raw, then a week of smoothie and juices, then go into your water fast. If you’re already on a plant based diet, do 3 to 7 days all fruits or juice or smoothie before doing your water fast.

      If you need more personal help, please feel free to email me at [email protected].

      Love and blessings πŸ™‚

      NB. In future I will put a donate button up, thank you.

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