Medicinal Plants of Nigeria and Their Uses

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The use of medicinal plants is an important part of Nigeria’s culture. Traditional healers over the years have used plants to treat and prevent a wide range of illnesses. The information provided here is from the research paper Traditional medicine and the future of Medicinal Plants in Nigeria by Emmanuel C. Chukwuma, Mike O. Soladoye, Roseline T. Feyisola.

Published in Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 2015; 3(4): 23-29.

Table 1: Some selected medicinal plants used in the traditional treatment of various ailments in Nigeria.

S/no
Family
Scientific Name
Habit
Parts used
Medicinal Uses
1AcanthaceaeAsystasia gangetica (L.) T.HerbWhole plantPile, astringent
Anders
2AcanthaceaeElytraria marginata VahlHerbLeavesStomachache, chest pain, wounds
3AcanthaceaePhaulopsis ciliata (Wild.) HepperHerbWhole plantWounds, laxative
4AmaranthaceaeAerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schult.HerbWhole plantUlcers, wounds, snake bite, diuretic, purgative
5AmaranthaceaeAlternanthera sessilis (L.) R. BrHerbLeaves, whole plantAntibacterial, astringent, headache
6AmaranthaceaeCelosia argentea L.HerbLeaves, roots, seedsDiuretic, gonorrhea, diarrhea
7AmaryllidaceaeCrinum jagus BakerHerbLeaves, bulbsAnthelmintics, purgative
8AnacardiaceaeAnacardium occidentale LTreeLeaves, fruits, stemTyphoid fever, malaria, cough,
barkhaemmorhoids
9AnacardiaceaeMangifera indica L.TreeLeaves, barkMalaria, diarrhoea, diabetes, sore-throat,
dysentery
10AnacardiaceaeSpondias mombin L.TreeFruits, bark, leavesDiuretic, fever, cold, gonorrhea
11AnnonaceaeAnnona senegalensis Pers.TreeLeaves, roots, fruitsCancer, dysentery, cough, venereal
diseases, toothache,
12AnnonaceaeEnantia chlorantha Oliv.TreeBarkFever, jaundice
13AnnonaceaeMonodora myristica DunalTreeSeedsConstipation, arthritis, anaemia,
headache
14AnnonaceaeUvaria chamae P. BeauvLeavesToothache
15ApocynaceaeAlafia barteri Oliv.LianaLeaves, rootsDiabetes
16ApocynaceaeAlstonia boonei De WildTreeRoots, leavesAstringent, fever, diabetes,
haemmorhoids
17ApocynaceaeFuntumia elastica (Preuss) Stapf.TreeStem, latexPile, jaundice
18ApocynaceaeHolarrhena floribunda (G. Don)TreeBark, leaves, wholeAnti-malaria, gonorrhea, dysentery,
Dur & Schinzplantjaundice
19ApocynaceaePicralima nitida (Stapf) T.Dur &ShrubsBark, rootsFever, diabetes, desentery
H.Dur.
20ApocynaceaeRauvolfia vomitoria AfzelTreeRook, bark, leaveConvulsion, jaundice, measles, herpes,
sapinternal disorder
21ArecaceaeCocos nucifera L.TreeBark, nuts, rootDysentery, diabetes, migraine,
toothache, liver ailment, laxative
22AsclepiadaceaeCalotropis procera R.BShrubLeaves, roots, latex,Diabetes, diarrhoea, dysentery, cough
barkelephantiasis, leprosy, ringworm,
23AsclepiadaceaeGongronema latifolium Benth.Root, stemHaemmorhoids, anthelmintic
24AsclepiadaceaePergularia daemia (Forssk)ClimberWhole plantFever, piles, diabetes
Chiov.
Diarrhoea, ulcer, diabetes, skin diseases,
25AsteraceaeAgeratum conyzoides L.HerbWhole plantirregular menstruation and menstrual
pain
26AsteraceaeAspilia africana (Pers.) C.D.HerbLeaves, whole plantStomach disorders, Skin diseases,
Adams.haemmorhoids
27AsteraceaeChromolaena odorata (L.) KingHerbLeavesAntimicrobial, fever, headache,
& Rob.dysentery, haemmorhoids
28AsteraceaeSynedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn.HerbLeavesSores, skin infections
29AsteraceaeTridax procumbens L.HerbWhole plantStomachache, backache
30BignoniaceaeKigelia africana BenthTreeLeaves, stem-barkAnti-cancer
31BignoniaceaeNewbouldia laevis (P.Beauv)TreeBark, roots, leavesEpilepsy, diabetes, convulsions, skin
Seaman ex Bureau.infections
32BombacaceaeAdansonia digitata L.TreeLeaves, fruit pulp,Malaria, asthma, diabetes
bark
33BombacaceaeBombax buonopozense P. BeauvTreeStem-bark, leavesSkin infections, stomachache, Blood
tonic,
34BombacaceaeCeiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.TreeLeaves, oilLaxative, sores, rheumatism
35CaesalpinaceaeSenna alata (L.) RoxbShrubLeaves, stem-barkDysentery, skin diseases, anthelmintics,
constipation
36CaesalpinaceaeSenna hirsuta (L.) Irwin &ShrubLeaves, rootsAntimicrobial, skin infection, purgative
Barneby
37CapparaceaeCrateva adansonii Dc.TreeLeaves, rootsDiabetes, tonic, stomachache, antipyretic
Leaves, fruits, stemDiabetes, malaria, dysentery, diabetes,
38CaricaceaeCarica papaya L.Shrubbarkvenereal diseases, catarrh, cough,
purgative, haemmorhoids
39ChenopodiaceaeChenopodium ambrosioides LHerbLeaves, whole plantAnthelmintics, rheumatism, anti-cancer
40CombretaceaeCombretum platypterum Hutch. &ClimberLeavesFebrifuge
Dalziel
41ConnaraceaeByrsocarpus coccineus (Schum &ShrubLeaves, rootsPile, dysentery, gonorrhea, tumours,
Thonn) Benthjaundice, cancer, haemmorhoids
42ConnaraceaeCnestis ferruginea DCShrubLeaves, rootsLaxative, fever, toothache,
haemmorhoids
43ConvolvulaceaeMerremia tridentata (L.) HallierClimberWhole plantGonorrhea
F.
44CostaceaeCostus afer Ker-GawlTall herbStem, rootsNausea, stomachache, aphrodisiac
45CrassulaceaeKalanchoe pinnata (Lam) Pers.HerbLeaf sapDiuretic
46CucurbitaceaeCitrullus colocynthis (L.) SchradTreeWhole plant, roots,Purgative, diabetes, anthelmintics,
fruit pulpcontraceptive
47CucurbitaceaeCoccinia barteri (Hook. f.) KeayClimberWhole plantVenereal diseases
48CucurbitaceaeMomordica charantia L.ClimberLeaves, fruits,Ulcers, burns, skin infections, diabetes,
whole plantconvulsion, pile
49CucurbitaceaeTelfaria occidentalis Hook.f.ClimberLeavesBlood tonic, convulsion
50CyperaceaeMariscus flabelliformisHerbRootsRoot is aromatic
Kunth
51DioscoreaceaeDioscorea bulbifera L.ClimberFruitsBoils, fever
52DioscoreaceaeDioscorea dumentorum (Kunth)ClimberLeaves, tubersMalaria, abdominal pain
Pax
53EuphorbiaceaeAcalypha fimbriataHerbLeavesUlcer, rheumatism, asthma
Schum. & Thonn.
54EuphorbiaceaeAlchornea cordifolia (Schumach.ShrubLeaves, stem, barkFever, diabetes, antimicrobial,
& Thonn.) Muell. Arg.haemmorhoids
55EuphorbiaceaeAlchornea laxiflora (Benth) PaxShrubLeaves, rootsTyphoid fever, antioxidant
et K. Hoffm
56EuphorbiaceaeBridelia ferruginea BenthShrubLeaves, stem-bark, rootsDiabetes, anti-cancer, haemmorhoids
57EuphorbiaceaeBridelia micrantha (Hochst) BaillSmall treeLeaves, roots, barkHeadache, migraine
58EuphorbiaceaeCroton lobatus L.HerbLeaves, rootSkin diseases, rheumatism
59EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia heterophylla L.HerbLeaves, rootsPurgative, skin infections
60EuphorbiaceaeFlueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Wild.)ShrubLeaves, rootsCancer, dysentery
Voigt
61EuphorbiaceaeJatropha curcas L.ShrubLeavesHaemmorhoids
62EuphorbiaceaeMallotus oppositifolius Mull. Arg.ShrubLeaves, rootsAstringent, ringworm
63FabaceaeCaesalpina bunduc (L.) RoxbShrubLeaves, seeds, rootsFever, diabetes, anthelmintics
(Caesalpinioideae)
64FabaceaeAlbizia adianthifolia (Schumach.)TreeStem barkGonorrhea, cough, diabetes, night
(Mimosoideae)W.Wightblindness, haemmorhoids
65FabaceaeAlbizia ferruginea (Guill & Perr)TreeRoot, stem bark,Dysentery, constipation
(Mimosoideae)Benthleaves
66FabaceaeAlbizia zygia (DC) J. F. Machr.TreeLeaves, stem barkAstringent
(Mimosoideae)
67FabaceaeLeucaena leucocephana (Lam)SmallLeavesAnti-microbial
(Mimosoideae)Dewittree
68FabaceaeParkia biglobosa Benth.TreeLeavesAnti-inflammatory
(Mimosoideae)
69FabaceaeAbrus precatorius L.ClimberLeaves, seeds, rootsDiabetes, cough, convulsion,
(Papilionioideae)rheumatism, conjunctivitis
70FabaceaeBaphia nitida LoddSmallLeaves, bark, rootsSkin diseases, constipation, small pox,
(Papilionioideae)treediabetes
71FabaceaeCentrosema pubescens BenthClimberLeavesSkin diseases
(Papilionioideae)
72FabaceaeCrotalaria retusa L.HerbLeaves, root, sedsFever, diabetes, dysentery
(Papilionioideae)
73FabaceaeDalbergiella welwitschii (Baker)ShrubStem, roots, leavesPurgative, diabetes, anthelmintics,
(Papilionioideae)Baker f.menstrual disorder.
74FabaceaePterocarpus osun CraibTreeRoot, stem barkEczema, asthma, skin infections
(Papilionioideae)
75GuttiferaeGarcinia kola HeckelTreeFruits, roots, stem-Anti-cancer, dysentery, diabetes,
barktoothache, cough
76IcacinaceaeIcacina trichanta Oliv.ShrubLeaves, roots,Rheumatism, aphrodisiac, anthelmintics,
exudatestoothache, abortificent, purgative
77IrvingiaceaeIrvingia gabonensis (Aubry-TreeLeavesSpleen infection
Lecomte O’Rorke) Baill.
78LabiataeOcimum gratissimum L.ShrubLeaves, whole plantDiarrhoea, pile, diabetes, fever, cold,
convulsion
79LamiaceaeSolenostemon monostachyus (P.HerbLeavesConvulsion, stomachache
Beauv.) Briq.
80LiliaceaeAllium ascolanicum LHerbWhole plantHaemmorhoids, diabetes, anti-cancer,
dysentery
81LiliaceaeAsparagus africanus Lam.Whole plantAntimicrobial, diuretic
82LoganiaceaeAnthocleista djalonensis A.chewTreeLeaves, stem-barkEczema, diabetes, antipyretic, purgative,
abdominal pain
83LythraceaeLagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers.TreeRipe fruits, leavesDiabetes
84LythraceaeLawsonia inermis L.ShrubLeavesHaemmorhoids
85MalvaceaeAbelmoschus esculentus (L.)HerbFruitDiabetes, fever, gonorrhea, dysentery
Moench
86MalvaceaeSida veronicifolia Lam.HerbWhole plantAphrodisiac, diabetes
87MarantaceaeThaumatococcus danielli Benth.HerbFruitDiabetics
88MelastomataceaeHeterotis rotundifolia (SM) Jac-HerbWhole plantAntimicrobial, venereal diseases, cough
Fel
89MeliaceaeKhaya grandifoliolia C. DC.TreeBarkHaemmorhoids, anti-cancer
90MenispermaceaeChasmanthera dependens HochstClimberRootsHaemmorhoids, diuretic
91MenispermaceaeRhigiocarya racemifera MiersClimbingLeaves, seedsSedative, aphrodisiac
plant
92MoraceaeAntiaris toxicaria LeschTreeRoot, stem barkPurgative, skin diseases, epilepsy
93MoraceaeFicus exasperata VahlTreeLeaves, bark, rootsSkin irritations, gonorrhea, urinary
ailments, haemmorhoids
94MoraceaeFicus mucuso Welw. Ex FicalhoTreeStem-barkInsomnia
95MoraceaeFicus sur ForsskTreeRootsHaemmorhoids
96MoraceaeMilicia excelsa (Welw.) C.C.TreeBark, roots, latexNausea, malaria, abdominal pain,
Berginsomnia
97MoraceaeMusanga cecropioides R. Br.TreeRoots, leaves, bark,Dysentery, cough, anthelmintics
exudates
98MoraceaeMyrianthus arboreus P.Beauv.TreeBarkDysentery, cough, anthelmintics
99MoraceaeTreculia africana DecneTreeLeaves, bark, rootsHaemmorhoids, ulcer, cough, venereal
diseases, anaemia, malaria
Haemmorhoids, diabetes, diarrhoea,
100MusaceaeMusa paradisiaca L.ShrubLeaves, roots, fruitsdysentery, epilepsy, goiter, gonorrhea,
anaemia
101MyristicaceaePycnanthus angolensis (Welw.)TreeLeaves, stem-barkBlack tongue, cough, fever, skin
Warbinfections, anti-cancer
102MyrtaceaePsidium guajava L.TreeRoots, leaves, stem-Haemmorhoids, fever, dysentery,
barkdiarrhoea, malaria, stomach ache
103OlacaceaeOlax subscorpioidea Oliv.TreeRoots, leaves, stem,Yellow fever, jaundice, guinea worm,
bark, twigsvenereal disease
104PandaceaeMicrodesmis puberula Hook f.ShrubLeaves, bark, seedsDysentery, impotence, Diarrhoea, wound
105PedaliaceaeCeratotheca sesamoides Endl.HerbSeedsRelieve pains after circumcisions
106PeriplocaceaeParquetina nigrescens (Afzel.)ClimberLeaves, rootsAnti-cancer, blood tonic, haemmorhoids
Bullock
107PiperaceaePeperomia pellucida (L.) KunthHerbWhole plantHaemmorhoids, hypertension,
convulsion, bone fracture
108PiperaceaePiper guineense Schum & ThonnClimberSeedHaemmorhoids, anti-cancer, diabetes
109PoaceaeBambusa vulgaris Schrad.GrassLeaves, youngHaemmorhoids, gonorrhea,
shootsanthelmintics
110PoaceaeSaccharum officinarum L.ShrubLeaves, stem juiceDiabetes, headache
111PolygalaceaeCarpolobia lutea G. DonShrubLeaves, barkAphrodisiac
112PolygalaceaeSecuridaca longepedunculataShrubleavesAnti-cancer
Fres.
113PortulacaceaePortulaca oleracea L.HerbWhole plantFever, skin diseases, fever, astringent
114RubiaceaeMorinda lucida BenthTreeLeaves, stem barkMalaria
115RubiaceaeNauclea diderrichii (De Wild. &TreeRoots, stem-bark,Gonorrhea, pile, malaria, dysentery
T.Durand) Merr.fruits
116RutaceaeCitrus aurantifolia (Christm.)TreeLeaves, stem bark,Malaria,gonorrhea, haemmorhoids,
Swingle.fruitdiabetes
117RutaceaeCitrus sinensis Osbeck.TreeStem-bark, leaves,Dysentery, headache, fever, toothache,
fruitsanthelmintics
118SapindaceaeLecaniodiscus cupanioides PlanchTreeLeaves, stem-bark,Fever, purgative, typhoid, jaundice,
ex Benthroots, seedscough, malaria
119SapindaceaePaullinia pinnata L.WoodyLeaves, roots, seedsJaundice, leprosy, aphrodisiac, dysentery
climber
120SapotaceaeChrysophyllum albidum G. DonTreeBark, leavesHaemmorhoids, diabetes, stomachache,
fever
121SolanaceaeNicotiana tabacum L.ShrubLeavesConvulsion, stimulant
122SterculiaceaeTheobroma cacao L.TreeSeeds, rootsGingivitis, toothache, stimulant
123TiliaceaeCorchorus olitorius L.WoodyLeaves, roots, seedsDiarrhoea, fever, asthma
herb
124TiliaceaeGlyphaea braevis (Spreng)SmallLeaves, stem barkFever, diarrhoea, toothache, fever
Monachinotree
125UlmaceaeTrema orientalis (L.) BlumeTreeLeaves, stem-barkHaemmorhoids, fever, cough, dysentery,
pneumonia, jaundice
126UrticaceaeLaportea aestuans (L.) ChewHerbWhole plantPiles, burns, astringent
127ZingiberaceaeAframomum melegueta (Roscoe)HerbLeaves, seedsHaemmorhoids, diabetes, stimulant
K.Schum.
Sources: Bhat et al. [17], Abubakar et al. [12], Odugbemi [18], Ugbogu et al. [19], Soladoye et al. [13, 4, 15].

 


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