Medicinal Plants for HIV/AIDS

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Science continues to grabble with the issue of HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus / Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). We recently heard how close they are to finding a cure. However, we have, in fact, heard this many times before.

While they work to find the elusive cure, the work of someone like Dr Sebi, who several decades earlier, won a court case proving he cures HIV/AIDS, continues to go unnoticed by the mainstream media. Dr Sebi’s emphasis was on the use of herbs to heal the body from any affliction, including HIV/AIDS.

The value of using medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS should not be ignored. Below is a table compiled by M. Krishnaveni published in the Journal of Pharmacy Research 2012,5(12),5367-5379, providing a list of plants that have shown anti-HIV properties and the active components in most of these plants.

Table 1. List of Medicinal plants with Anti – HIV activity

S.NoPlant name / family nameCompound nameActivityReferences
1Acer okamotoanum / AceraceaeFlavonoid- Gallate esterAnti-HIV-1 integrase activityKim HJ et.al 1998[55]
2Ancistrocladus kor upensis / AncistrocladaceaeMichellamines A and BInhibits reverse transcriptase, cellular fusion and
syncytium formation
Boyd MRet.al 1994[56]
3Agardhiella tenera / AreschougiaceaeSulfonated polysaccharidesInhibits HIV cytopathic effectWitvrouw M et.al1994[57]
4Achyrocline satureioides / AsteraceaeDicaffeoylquinic acids: 3,5- dicaffeoylquinic acid, & 1-
methoxyoxalyl-3,5-dicaffeoylquinic
acid
Irreversible inhibition of HIV-1 integraseZhu K et.al 1999[58]
5Arctium lappa / AsteraceaeWedelolactone, a coumarin derivative; OrobolInhibits HIV-1 replication; blocks cell-to-cell
transmission of HIV-1
Yao XJ et.al 1992[59] Bulletin of the World
Health Organization 67 (6):
613-618,1989[20]
6Arnebia euchroma / BoraginaceaeMonosodium and Monopotassium salts of isomeric caffeic acid tetramerInhibits HIV replicationKashiwada Y 2000[60]
7Acacia mellifera / LeguminosaeInhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptaseGeoffrey M Rukunga et.al 2002[61]
8Azadirachta indica / MeliaceaInhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptaseGeoffrey M Rukunga et.al 2002[61]
9Albizia gummifera / LegiuminosaeInhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptaseGeoffrey M Rukunga et.al 2002[61]
10Aloe barbadensis / LiliaceaeAcemannan -PolymanoacetateReduce symptoms associated with HIVMc Daniel et.al 1988[62]
11Aleurites moluccana / EuphorbiaceaeProstratin-a phorbal esterAnti HIV activityGustafson KR et.al 1992[63]
12Artocarpus gomezianus / MoraceaeAnti HIV activityJagtap and Bapat et.al 2010[64]
13Artocarpus reticulates / MoraceaeAnti HIV activityJagtap and Bapat et.al 2010[64]
14Artocarpus heterophyllus / Moraceaeinhibition of HIV-1 RT activityKun Silprasit et.al 2011[65]
15Allium sativum / Liliaceaeeffective against HIV infection by inhibiting virus
replication,Inhibitory activity
against HIV 1RT
Harris et al,2001[66] Kun Silprasitet.al2011[65]
16Acorus calamus / AcoraceaeInhibitory effect against HIV-1 RTKun Silprasitet.al2011[65]
17Asparagus officinalis / AsparagaceaeAnti HIVactivity, Inhibition of gp120 bindingAnuya A Rege et.al 2010[67]
18Andrographis Paniculata / AcanthaceaeDiterpene lactones (andrographolide) Andrograpanin -Bis-andrographolide
ether
Inhibit cell-to-cell transmission, viral
replication and syncytia
formation in HIV-infected
cells,Inhibition of HIV
protease & reverse
transcriptase
Otake T et.al 1995[68] Calabrese Cet.al2002[69]
Bulletin of the World
Health Organization, 67
(6): 613-618, 1989[20]
Tamura S et.al 2010[70]
19Areca catechu / ArecaceaeProcyanidinInhibition of HIV proteaseKusomoto IT et.al 1995[71]
20Alternanthera philoxeroides / AmaranthaceaeInhibitory activity against HIVBulletin of the World Health Organization, 67
(6): 613-618, 1989[20]
21Agastache rugosa / LamiaceaeAgastanol and AgastaquinoneProtease inhibitorMin BS et.al 1999[72]
22Alpinia galanga / Zingiberaceae1’S-1’-acetoxychavicol acetateAnti HIV activityTamura S et.al 2010[70]
23Anisomeles indica / LamiaceaeOvatodiolideAnti HIV activityTamura S et.al 2010[70]
24Ardisia japonica / MyrsinaceaeArdimerin digallateAnti HIV activityTamura S et.al 2010[70]
25Artemisia capallaris / CompositaeArtemisidin A, Artemicapins A,BAnti HIV activityTamura S et.al 2010[70]
26B. micrantha / EuphorbiaceaeInhibit RDDP & RNAse HPascal Obong Bessong et.al activity HIV -1 RT 2004[73]
27Baccharis trinervis / AsteraceaeInhibit early steps of virus replication, including virus-cell
attachment, virus-cell fusion
and cell-to-cell fusion
Sonsoles sanchez Palomino et.al 2002[74]
28Boesenbergia pandurata / ZingiberaceaePanduratin C, UvangoletinAnti HIV activityTamura S et.al 20100[70]
29Bulbine natalensis / AsphodelaceaeAnti HIV activityAfolayan AJ 2003[75]
30Clusia torresii / GuttiferaePolyisoprenylated benzophenone derivatives -Clusianone and 7-epi-
clusianone
Anti HIV-1 activityPiccinelli et al 2005[76]
31Calophyllum lanigerum / ClusiaceaeCalanolide Calanolide A- Coumarinsreverse transcriptase inhibitor

Anti HIV activity

Inhibits reverse transcriptase
MaT et .al 2008[77]

Laure F et.al 2008[78]

CreaghT et.al 2001[79]
Asres K et.al 2005[80]
Kostova I et.al 2006[81]
32Calophyllum braziliense / ClusiaceaeCalanolide A,BInhibit HIV-1 Reverse transcriptase activityTamuraS et.al 2010[70]
Huerta Reyes M et.al 2004[82]
Garcia Zeadua Julio Cesar et.al 2011[83]
33Celastrus hindsii / CelastraceaeCelasdin BAnti-HIV replication activity,
Anti HIV activity
Kuo YH 1997[84]
Yang GX et.al 2005[85]
34Callophyllum cordato oblongum / ClusiaceaeCordatolide A and B (+)- Calanolide AInhibits HIV-1 replication
Inhibits cytopathic effects of HIV-1
Dharmaratne HRW et.al 2002[86]
Xu ZQ et.al 2000[87]
35Combretum molle / CombreataceaeGallotannin, PunicalaginInhibits HIV-1 reverse Transcriptase
Anti HIV activity
Bessong PO et.al 2005[88]

Bodiwala HS et.al2009[89]
36Crataegus pinatifida / RosaceaeUvaol and Ursolic acidInhibits HIV-1 proteaseMin BS et.al 1999[72]
37Cinnamomum loureiroi / LauraceaeInhibitory effect against HIV-1 RTKun Silprasit et.al 2011[65]
38Curcuma longa / ZingiberaceaeCurcuminInhibition of HIV integraseBerthelemy S et.al 1998[90]
39Ceriops decandra / RhizophoraceaeInhibit virus adsorptionPremanathan M et.al 1996[91]
40Cinnamomum aromiticum / LauraceaeInhibit virus induced cytopathogenicityPremanathan Met.al 2000[92]
41Coptis chinensis / RanunculaceaeInhibitory activity against HIVBulletin of the World Health Organization, 67 (6): 613-618,1989[20]
42Crataegus pinnatifida / RosaceaeUvaol and Ursolic acidInhibits HIV-1 protease ,
Anti HIV activity
Min BS, Jung HJ et.al 1999[72]
Bodiwala HS et.al2009[89]
43Charysanthemum morifolium / AsteraceaeApigenin 7-O-ß-D (4 caffeoyl) flavonoid glucuronideInhibits integraseLee JS et.al 2003[93]
44Castanopsis hystrix / FagaceaeGalloylquinates,GalloylshikimatesHIV-RT inhibitionChang CW et.al 1995[94]
45Calophyllum inophyllum / ClusiaceaeInophyllum B,PAnti HIV activityLaure F et.al 2008[78]
46Calophyllum teysmannii / ClusiaceaeCalanolide B, SaulattrolideAnti HIV activityLaure F et.al 2008[78]
47Caranga rosea / FabaceaeScirpusin A,BAnti HIV activityYang GX et.al 2005[85]
48Clausena excavata / RutaceaeClausenolide-1 ethyletherAnti HIV activityLee J S et.al 2003[93]
49Coleus forskohlii / LabiateaeForskolin, 1-deoxyforskolinAnti HIV activityBodiwala HS et.al2009[89]
50Coleus parvifolius / LabiateaeRosmarinic acid, Rosmarinic acid methyl etherAnti HIV activityBodiwala HS et.al2009[89]
51Cratoxylum arborescens / Clusiaceae1,3,8-trihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxyxanthoneAnti HIV activityReutrakul V et.al 2006[95]
52Croton tiglium / Euphorbiaceae12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetateAnti HIV activityReutrakul V et.al 2006[95]
53Detarium microcarpum / LeguminosaeEpicatechin Catechins 1-5Anti HIV activity

Inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity in a non-
specific way
Mehmood Net.al 1993[96]

Moore PS et.al 1992[97]
54Drymaria diandra / CaryophyllaceaeDrymaritinWetzel I et.al 2009[98]
55Dryopteris crassirhizoma / DryopteridaceaeDryopteric acid A, BLee J S et.al 2008[99]
56Dracaena loureiri / AgavaceaeInhibitory effect against HIV-1 RTKun Silprasit et.al 2011[65]
57Diospyros lotus / EbenaceaeGallic acidInhibitor of HIV 1 replication by targeting the viral proteins that mediate late steps of HIV replicationLu L et. al 2004[100]
58Erigeron Breviscapus / AsteraceaeScutellarinInhibited HIV-1 replicationWang Q et.al 2004[101], Zhang GH et.al 2005[102]
59Epimediumgrandiflorum / BerberidaceaeInhibitory activity against HIVBulletin of the World Health Organization, 67 (6): 613-618,1989[20]
60Eugenia jambolona / MyrtaceaeInhibition of HIV proteaseKusomotoIT et.al 1995[71]
61Erythrina abyssinica / LeguminosaeInhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptaseGeoffrey M Rukunga et.al 2002[61]
62Erigeron breviscapus / AsteraceaeHumulus lupulus and ScutellarinInhibits HIV-1 replicationWang Q et.al 2004[101], Zhang GH et.al 2005[102]
63Eclipta prostrate / AsteraceaeOrobol, WedelolactoneAnti HIV activityLee JS et.al 2008[99]
64Epinetrum villosum / MenispermaceaeCycleanineAnti HIV activityLee JS et.al 2008[99]
65Erythrina senegalensis / FabaceaeAuriculatin, ErysenegalenseinAnti HIV activityLee J et.al
66Euchresta formosana / LeguminosaeFormosanatin C, Euchretin MAnti HIV activityLo WL et.al 2003[104]
67Eugenia caryophyllata / MyrtaceaeTellimagrandin IAnti HIV activityLo WL et.al 2003[104]
68Euphorbia poisonii / Euphorbiaceae12-deoxyphorbol-13-phenylacetateAnti HIV activityLo WL et.al 2003[104]
69Flammulina velutipes / PhysalacriaceaeVelutinInhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptaseWang HX et.al 2001[105]
70Ferula sumbul / UmbelliferaeHeraclenol, ImperatorinAnti HIV activityZhou P et.al 2000[106]
71Garcinia speciosa / HypericaceaeProtostanes ,Garciosaterpene A,CInhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase
72Glycyrrhiza glabra / FabaceaeGlycyrrhizinInhibition of Giant cell formation, viral adsorption,Inhibited
Infectivity, cytopathic
activity, replication
Ito M et.al1987 [108], Ito M et.al 1988[37]
73Gossypiumher baceum / MalvaceaeGossypolInhibit viral replicationLin TS et.al 1989[109]
74Garcinia kingaensis / ClusiaceaeAnti HIV -1 protease activityJoseph J. Magadula 2010[110]
75Garcinia livingstoneii / ClusiaceaeGutifferone A,Anti HIV activityGustafson KR et. al, 1992[63]
76Garcinia volkensis / ClusiaceaeAnti HIV -1 protease activityJoseph J. Magadula 2010[110]
77Garcinia semseii / ClusiaceaePolyisoprenylated benzophenones, SemsinonesA-CAnti HIV activityJoseph J. Magadula 2010[110]
78Garcinia edulis / ClusiaceaeAnti HIV -1 protease activityJoseph J. Magadula 2010[110]
79Garcinia Ferrea / ClusiaceaeAnti HIV -1 protease activityJoseph J. Magadula 2010[110]
80Grewia mollis / TiliaceaeInhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptaseGeoffrey M Rukunga 2002[61]
81Geum japonicum / RosaceaeMaslinic acidInhibits HIV-1 proteaseXu HX 1996[111]
82Garcinia hanburyii / ClusiaceaeEpoxymorellic acidAnti HIV activityReutrakul V et.al 2007[112]
83Gingko biloba / GinkgoaceaeCardanols, BilobalsAnti HIV activityReutrakul V et.al 2007[112]
84Garciniaman gostana / ClusiaceaeMangostinHIV-1 protease inhibitionChen et.al 1996[113]
85Glycosmis Montana / Rutaceae3-(3-hydroxymethyl-2-butenyl)-7-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1indole.Anti HIV activityRajandeep Kaur et.al 2011[114]
86Galanthus nivalis / AmaryllidaceaeG. nivalis agglutinin-GNAStops spread of HIV among lymphocytes GNA has specificity for terminal a(1-3)-linked mannose residuesSaidi H et.al 2007[115]
87Humulus lupulus / CannabaceaeXanthohumolInhibited HIV-1 induced cytopathic effectWang et.al 2004[101], Zhang et.al 2005[102]
88Helictrus isora / SterculiaceaeInhibition of HIV proteaseOtakeT et.al 1995[68]
89Hypoxis hemerocallidea / HypoxidaceaeBisi-Johnson MA et.al2010[116], Mills E et.al 2005[117]
AhmadAet.al 2009[118]
SADC Ministerial Consultative meeting 2002[120], Albrecht CF and Kruger PB et.al [121]
90Hippeastrum hybrids / AmaryllidaceaeHippeastrum hybrid agglutinin-HHA,and Mannose-bindingStops spread of HIV among lymphocytes; most prominent
anti-HIV activity is found among MBLs; HHA lectins- MBL
Recognizes both terminal and
internal á(1-3)- and á(1-6)-
linked mannose

Saidi H et.al 2007[115]
91Homolanthus nutans / EuphorbiaceaeAnti HIV activityGustafson KR et.al 1992[63]
92Hypericum perforatum / ClusiaceaeHypericin, 3-hydroxy lauric acidInhibits HIV-1 replicationBirt DF et.al 2009[122], Lavie G et.al 1995[123]
93Hemsleya endecaphyllaCucurbitacin BAnti HIV activityIto M et.al 1988[37]
94Illicium verum / IlliciaceaeIllicinone AAnti HIV activitySongWY et.al 2007[124]
95Inonotus obliquus / HymenochaetaceaeWater-soluble ligninsInhibits HIV-1 proteaseIchimuraT et.al1998[125]
96Juglans mandshurica /JuglandaceaeTaxifolin- dihydroquercetinInhibited cytopathic activityMin BS et.al 2002[126], Matuse IT et.al1999[127]
97Jatropha curcus / EuphorbiaceaeCorilaginAnti HIV activityMatuse IT et.al1999[127]
98Kadsura angustifolia / SchisandraceaeBinankadsurin AAnti HIV activityGao XM et.al 2008[128]
99Kadsura longipedunculata / SchisandraceaeKadlongirins B, Longipedunins A B CAnti HIV activitySun QZ et.al 2006[129]
100Kaempferia parvifolia / Zingiberaceae5-hyroxy-7-methoxyflavone, (5,7 dimethoxyflavone)Anti HIV activityGeitmann M et.al 2006[130]
101Lentinus edodes / AgaricaceaeSulfated lentinanPrevents HIV-induced cytopathic effectSuzuki H et.al 1989[131]
102Lomatium suksdorfii / ApiaceaeSuksdorfinSuppresses HIV viral 1 replicationYu D et.al 2007[132], Zhang CF et.al 2002[133]
103Lycopodium japonicum / LycopodiaceaeLucojapodine AAnti HIV activityHe J et.al 2009[134]
104Leptotrichilia / MeliaceaeInhibition of HIV-1 reverse ranscriptaseGeoffrey M Rukunga et.al 2002[61]
105Lawsonia inermis / LythraceaeInhibitory effect against HIV-1 RTKun Silprasit et.al 2011[65]
106Lonicera japonica / CaprifoliaceaeCaffeolyl quinatesIn vitro inhibitory activity against HIV—RTChang CW et.al 1995[94], Bulletin of the World Health
Organization, 67 (6): 613-
618,1989[20]
107Lithospermum erythrorhizon / BoraginaceaeIn vitro inhibitory activity against HIVBulletin of the World Health Organization, 67 (6): 613-
618,1989[20]
108Leucojum vernum / AmaryllidaceaeLycorine, HomolycorineAnti HIV activityGeitmann M et.al 2006[130]
109Ligularia kanaitizensis / Aspidiaceae9 alpha-angloyloxypinoresinolAnti HIV activityGeitmann M et.al 2006[130]
110Lindera chunii / LauraceaeHernandonine, LaurolistineAnti HIV activityZhang CF et.al 2002[133]
111Litsea verticillata / LauraceaeIsolitseanes B, Oxyphyllenodiol BAnti HIV activityZhang CF et.al 2002[133]
112Melia azedarach / MeliaceaeInhibition of HIV-1 reversetranscriptaseGeoffrey M Rukunga et.al 2002[61]
113Myrica salicifolia / MyricaceaeInhibition of HIV-1 reversetranscriptaseGeoffrey M Rukunga et.al 2002[61]
114Maytenus buchnanii / CelastraceaeInhibition of HIV-1 reversetranscriptaseGeoffrey M Rukunga et.al 2002[61]
115Maytenus Senegalensis / CelastraceaeInhibition of HIV-1 reversetranscriptaseGeoffrey M Rukunga et.al 2002[61]
116Myrothamnus flabellifolius / MyrothamnaceaePolyphenols, gallotannins, 3,4,5-tri-Ogalloylquinic acids.Polyphenols protect cell membranes against free radical-induced damage;
gallotannins have anti-burn
properties; 3,4,5-tri-
Ogalloylquinic acids have anti-
HIV reverse transcriptase (RT)
activity
Moore JP et.al 2007[135]
117Musa acuminate / MusaceaeBanLec, a jacalin-related lectinBlocks HIV entry, hence is a good microbicide; potent
inhibitor of HIV-1
replication
SwansonMD et.al 2010[136]
118Marilalaxi flora / ClusiaceaeLaxofloranoneInhibits reverse transcriptaseBokesch HR et.al 2001[137]
119Marila pluricostata / ClusiaceaeMesuolAnti HIV activityHe J et.al 2009[134]
120Millettia erythrocalyx / LeguminoceaeMillettocalyxin, OxyresveratrolAnti HIV activityHe J et.al 2009[134]
121Momordica charantia / CucurbitaceaeMAP- 30 protein

Kuguacins F-S
Inhibit intergase, RT of HIV

Anti HIV activity
Wang YX et.al1999[138]

He J et.al 2009[134]
122Monotes africanus / DipterocarpaceaeLonchocarpol AAnti HIV activityMeragelman KM et.al 2001[139]
123Murraya siamensis / RutaceaeSiamenolAnti HIV activityMeragelman KM et.al 2000[140]
124Ochna integerrima / OchnaceaeOchnaflavone 7’’O-methylether, 2’’,3’’-dihydroochnaflavone 7’’-O
methylether
Anti HIV activityReutrakul Vand Ninguek Net.al 2007[112]
125Ocimum sanctum / LamiaceaeHighest inhibition of recombinant HIV -RTKun Silprasit et.al 2011[65], Anuya A Rege A et.al 2010[67]
126Ocimum gratissimum / LamiaceaeReduction in HIV-1 RT activityAyisi and Nyadedzor et.al 2003[141]
127Polyalthia suberosa /AnnonaceaeLanostane-type triterpene, SuberosolAnti-HIV replication activityLi H et.al 1993[142]
128Peltophorum africanum / CaesalpiniaceaeGallotannin

Catechin, betulinic acid
Inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase

Anti HIV activity
Bessong PO et.al 2005[88]

Thoe A et.al 2009[143]
129Phytolacca Americana / PhytolaccaceaePokeweed antiviral protein -PAPBroad spectrum microbicideD’cruz OJ et.al 2004[144]
130Pipturus albidus / UrticaceaeInhibit HIV growthChristopher p et.al 1996[145]
131Prunus africana / RosaceaeInhibition of HIV-1 reversetranscriptaseGeoffrey M Rukunga et.al 2002[61]
132Portula caoleracea / PortulacaceaeInterfere with viral growthSharma PC et.al2005[146]
133Papaver somniferum / PapaveraceaePapaverineInterfere withH IV protein gp 120Turano A et.al 1989[147]
134Psidium guajava / MyrtaceaeProcyanidine B2Inhibit HIV RTKakiuchi N et.al1991[148]
135Phyllanthus emblica / EuphorbiaceaePutranjivain AInhibit HIV RTMekkawy S et.al1995[149]
136Peltophorum africanum / Fabaceaebetulinic acid
(+)-Catechin a flavonoid
Epicatechin and Epigallocatechin
gallate Bergenin a
C-galloylglycoside
Gallotannin
Inhibits HIV-1 111B
Inhibit 3, end processing
activity of HIV -1

Inhibit Hiv -1 RT
Inhibit the binding of GP120
Inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase
Fujioka et.al 1994[150]
Bessong et.al 2005[88]
Tillekeratne et.al 2002[151]
Piacente et.al 1996[152]
Bessong et.al 2005[88]
137Prunella vulgaris / LamiaceaeSulfonated polysaccharidesInhibitory activity against HIVChangRS et.al1988[53], Ngan et.al 1989[54]
138Pericampylus glaucas / MenispermaceaeNorruffscine, 8-oxotetrahydropalmatineAnti HIV activityYan MH et.al 2008[153]
139Phenax angustifolius / UrticaceaePhenaxolactonesAnti HIV activityPiccenelli ALet.al 2005[154], Mahmood N et.al 1993[96]
140Phyllanthus amarus / PhyllanthaceaeGeraniin, CorilaginAnti HIV activityPiccenelli AL et.al 2005[154], Mahmood N et.al 1993[96]
141Phyllanthus myritifolius / PhyllanthaceaeRetrojusticidin BAnti HIV activityPiccenelli AL et.al,2005[154], Mahmood N et.al 1993[96]
142Pragnos tschimganica / UmbelliferaePsolaren, BergaptenAnti HIV activityShikishima Y et.al 2001[155]
143Plumbago indica / PlumbaginaceaeInhibitory effect againstHIV-1 RTKun Silprasit et.al 2011[65]
144Psiadia dentate / AsteraceaeIsoobtusitinAnti HIV activityShikishima Y et.al 2001[155]
145Psychotria leptothyrsa / RubaceaePsyles A-F CyclotidesAnti HIV activityShikishima Y et.al 2001[155]
146Quercus myrsinifolia / Fagaceaeinhibit HIV reverse transcriptase and HIV cell growthVermani and Garg et.al 2002[156]
147Quercus stenophylla / Fabaceaeinhibit HIV reverse transcriptase and HIV cell growthVermani K and Garg S 2002[156]
148Quercus infectoria / Fabaceaeinhibit HIV reverse transcriptase and HIV cell growthVermani K and Garg S 2002[156]
149Quercus pedunculata / Fabaceaeinhibit HIV reverse transcriptase and HIV cell growthVermani K and Garg S2002[156]
150Rhus succedanea /Anacardiaceae.Biflavonoids, robustaflavone and hinokiflavoneInhibits HIV-1 reversetranscriptaseLin YM et.al 1997[157]
151Rhamnus staddo / Rhamnaceae.Inhibition of HIV-1 reversetranscriptaseGeoffrey M Rukunga et.al 2002[61]
152Rhus chinensis / AnacardiaceaeRhuscolide -A, Moronic acidAnti HIV activityGu Q et.al 2007[158]
153Ridolfia segetum / ApiaceaePhellandrene, TerpinoleneAnti HIV activityBicchi C et.al 2009[159]
154Rosa damascene / RosaceaeTetrahydroxyflavonolAnti HIV activityBicchi C et.al 2009[159]
155Rosa woodsii / RosaceaeOleanolic acidAnti HIV activityKashiwada Y et.al 1998[160]
156Rhizophora mucronata / RhizophoraceaeHighest inhibition of RNA dependent DNA polymerase
activity of HIV RT
Anuya A Rege et.al 2010[67]
157Scutellaria baicalensis / LamiaceaeBaicalin calanolide-coumarins - f lavonoid,Anti HIV activity
Reverse transcriptase
infection/entry, replication
inhibit infectivity& replication of HIV A potent non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
(NNRTI) of human immunodeficiency virus
type 1(HIV-1)
Wei Y et.al 2008[161]
KitamuraK et.al 1998[162]
Li Q et.al 2000[163]
Min BS et.al 2002[126]
FassinaG et.al 2002[164]
Lee J S et.al 2003[93]
PommierYet.al2005[165]
Creagh T et.al 2001[79]
Ases K et.al 2005[80]
Kostova I et.al 2006[81]
158Senecio scandens / AsteraceaeInhibitory activity against HIVBulletin of the World Health Organization, 67 (6): 613-618, 1989[20]
159Sapium indicum / EuphorbiaceaeInhibitory effect against HIV-1KunSilprasit et.al 2011[65]
160Sideritis akmanii / LamiaceaeSulfonated polysaccharides, linearolAnti-HIV replicationBruno M et.al 2002[166]
161Sutherlandia Frutescens / LiguminosaeL-canavanine,D-pinitolAnti viral activity

Treat HIV infection
Green M et.al 1988[167]

Oslund R et.al 1996[168]
Gericke N et.al2001[169]
Dalvi S et.al 2003[170]
162Swertia franchetiana / GentianaceaeFlavonone-xanthone glucosideInhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptaseWang JN et.al 1994[171]
163Symphonia globulifera / ClusiaceaeGuttiferone AInhibits cytopathic effects of HIVGustafson KR et.al 1992[63]
164Salvia miltiorrhyza / LamiaceaeLithospermic acidAnti HIV activityKashiwada Y et.al 1998[160]
165Salvia officinalis / LamiaceaeFerulic acid, isoferulic acidAnti HIV activityBailly F et.al 2005[172]
166Salvia yunnanensis / LamiaceaeMethyl salvianolate Cis-lithospermic acidAnti HIV activityZhang ZF et.al 2008[173]
167Saururus chinenisis / SaururaceaeManassantin A, Saururin BAnti HIV activityLee J et.al 2010[174]
168Schisandra lancifolia / SchisandraceaeLancifoic acid, Nigranoic acidAnti HIV activityXiao WL et.al 2006[175]
169Schisandra propinqua / SchisandraceaeTiegusanins GAnti HIV activityLi XN et.al 2009[176]
170Schisandra rubiflora / SchisandraceaeRubrisandrins A BAnti HIV activityXiao WL et.al 2001[177]
171Schisandra sphenanthera / SchisandraceaeSphenadilactone CAnti HIV activityXiao WL et.al 2001[177]
172Schisandra wilsoniana / SchisandraceaeWilsonilignans A B CAnti HIV activityYang GY et.al 2010[178]
173Stauntonia obovatifoliola / Malvaceae16 beta-hydroxylupane-1,20 (29) -diene-3oneAnti HIV activityWei Y et.al 2008[179]
174Stephania cepharantha / MenispermaceaeCepharanthine

Aromoline
Inhibits HIV replication

Anti HIV activity
Ma CM et.al 2002[180]

Ma CM et.al 2002[180]
175Strychnos vanprukii / Loganiaceae3-beta-O-trans-feruloylbetulinic acid,3-beta-O-trans-coumaroylbetulinic acidAnti HIV activityMa CM et.al 2002[180]
176Thalassia testudunium / HydrocharitaceaeThalassiolinsAnti HIV activityRowleyDCet.al2002[181]
177Tieghemella heckelii / SapotaceaeArganine CAnti HIV activityRowleyDCet.al2002[181]
178Trigonostemon thyrsoideum / EuphorbiaceaeTrigonothyrins CAnti HIV activityZhang L et.al 2010[182]
179Trigonos temonlii / EuphorbiaceaeTrigonoliimines AAnti HIV activityTan CJ et.al 2010[183]
180Tripterigiumhy poglaucam / BerberidaceaeTriptonine BAnti HIV activityDuan H et.al 2000[184]
181Tripterigium wilfordii / CelastraceaeDiterpene lactones (nortripterifordin)

Trifordine A B C
Inhibits HIV replication

Anti HIV activity
Duan H et.al 2000[184]

HoriuchMet.al 2006[185]
182Terminalia chebula / CombretaceaeGallic acid and galloyl glucoseInhibits HIV reversetranscriptase and integraseAhn MJ 2002[186], Sharma Pcet.al2005[146][61]
183Toddalia asiatica / RutaceaeInhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptaseGeoffrey M Rukunga 2002
184Terminalia sericea / Combrataceaestrongest inhibition against HIV-1 RT RDDP and Rnase functions.Pascal Obong Bessong 2004et.al[73]
185Tinospora cordifolia / MenispermaceaeInhibition of gp 120 bindingAnuya A Rege et.al 2010[67]
186Terminalia arjuna / CombrataceaeInhibition of HIV proteaseKusomotoITet.al1995[71]
187Terminalia bellerica / Combrataceaechebulagic acid, punicalin, punicalagin & punicacortinInhibit HIV RT, viral adsorptionMekkawy S 1995[149]
188Terminalia. horrida / CombrataceaeInhibit HIV RTMekkawy S 1995[149]
189Vatica astrotricha / DipterocarpaceaeDipterocarpaceae/6,8-diprenylaromadendrin and 6,8-diprenylkaempferolInhibits HIV-1 entry and replicationPark I-W 2009[187]
190Vitex negundo / LamiaceaeInhibitory effect against HIV-1 RTKun Silprasit et.al 2011[65]
191Viola yedoensis / ViolaceaeSulfonated polysaccharidesInvitro inhibitory activity against HIVChang RS et.al1988[53], Ngan et.al 1989[54]
192Vatica cinerea / DipterocarpaceaeVaticinoneInhibited replicationZhang HJ et.al 2003[188]
193Woodwardia unigemmata / BlechnaceaeInvitro inhibitory activity against HIVBulletin of the World Health Organization, 67 (6): 613-618, 1989[20]
194Warburgia ugandensis / CanellaceaeInhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptaseGeoffrey M Rukunga 2002[61]
195White birch tree / BetulaceaeBetulinic acid - pentacyclic triterpene inhibit maturation of the HIV-1 Gag precursorKashiwada Y1996[189]
Li Fet.al2003[190]
Yu D et.al 2005[191]
Yu D et.al 2007[192]
196Xanthoxylum chalybeum / RutaceaeInhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptaseGeoffrey M Rukunga 2002[61]
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