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lily of the valley

Herbal Materia Medica 5.0

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HERBAL MATERIA MEDICA  5.0

A brief outline of major medicinal plants, giving preferred media, 
strengths, common dosage ranges, possible side effects, and ecologic status.

Copyright 1995 by Michael Moore.  Use it, share it, just don't sell it
or change it in any way (unless you get my permission)

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

I - CHANGES AND ADDITIONS (lines 18-70)
II - FORMAT EXPLANATION (lines 75-139)
III - MATERIA MEDICA (lines 142-1866)
IV - OUTLINE OF PREPARATION METHODS (lines 1869-1985)
V - INDEX of ALTERNATE NAMES (lines 1988-2608)

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CHANGES AND ADDITIONS to HERBAL MATERIA MEDICA 5.0
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(1) I added 42 botanicals...some are new and "sexy" herbs that have reached the market in whole crude plant form (such as Uncaria and Pygeum) and can now be dealt with as "herbs" rather than European phytopharmaceuticals, re-packaged for "Health Food Stores"...some are plants I have become familiar with or have reliable first hand information from friends abroad.
(2) I have added a new format category that deals with the ecologic status of the herbs listed herein.  Most folks using or prescribing herbs have little awareness regarding the relative frequency or scarcety of plants as found in the Real World...whether wildcrafted, cultivated, whatever.  Some widely used plants are tottering on the brink of near-extinction...Hydrastis (Golden Seal), Helonias (Chamaelirium), Harpagophytum (Devil's Claw)...to name a few...and those of us who use plants should be as aware as possible of such factors.  
  
The largest axe that I grind in my work is the desire to make herb-users  aware that herbs don't mysteriously materialize in capsules, they don't substantiate spontaneously in pound or kilo bags delivered at one's home or place of business...and there is often no reason to believe that the maker of an extract or tincture has any better idea of the source than YOU do.
  
Any one that has grown Garden Sage or Summer Savory will haughtily turn up their noses at the junk in the can or jar at the market...drab, grey, lifeless. Others grow their own tomatoes and scorn the picked-too-early, biologically engineered tomatoes of commerce...they KNOW the good stuff.  The same should be true of plant medicines.  Offering manuals, photographs, and REAL TIME information about herbs is my attempt to help serious herb users to, slowly, gradually, start to view botanical medicines in the same way they view their produce and dairy products...the closer to the source, the better the quality. MAKE YOUR OWN MEDICINES...at least once, okay?  At least you can bring some personal knowledge to bear upon the next purchase of herbal preparations made by someone else...buy with experience, not because of packaging, obscure claims of excellence, or extensive ad campaigns.  A good shopper at the Green Grocers should know the qualities that signify good produce.  The users of herbs should accumulate similar knowledge...and I hope my work can aid in that process.  (end of tirade)

(3) I have also expanded annotations, asides and warnings for many plants.

If you find any errors or feel you have strong disagreements, please let me know (by any of the means listed at the end).  I am always pleasantly surprised at how MANY folks find these clinical manuals useful...especially the Herbal Materia Medica.  Familiarity does not breed contempt on my part, but it DOES breed blindness.  Editors plow gleefully into my books, taking out smarmy jokes, curses, and awkward syntax...but they have to leave the editing of technical stuff to the author...me.  Such manuals as this, however, are nearly pure "technical"...and I don't have the advantage of "peer revue"...I apparently know more about this type of shit than anybody else I know of, so I am left proofing my own work (not generally advisable). If you find recommendations that seem askew, PLEASE let me know.  We may
simply disagree, or I may have made a typographical error.  No matter how MANY times I teach from these manuals, I still find simple typos that I have looked at twenty times, each time seeing what I MEANT to write, rather than what I ACTUALLY wrote.
                                         Michael
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SOUTHWEST SCHOOL OF BOTANICAL MEDICINE
122 Tulane SE, Albuquerque, NM  87106
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FORMAT EXPLANATION
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(*)LATIN NAME.  These plants are not appropriate in pregnancy, either because
of their effect on the uterus or the hypothalamus/pituitary axis, their toxic
potential, or my own conservative attitude about herbs in pregnancy.  
Several plants, such as Podophyllum, may actually cause birth defects.

LATIN NAME. This is the primary listing, and reflects a combination of extant,
older pharmaceutical, and recent Latin.  Leptandra is Veronicastrum in current
botany, but the first name still is widely used by herbalists and is how I 
list it here.  Many plants are listed simply by genus (such as Arnica) because
I feel so many species are the equivalent of the official one or a genus is
so singular that I only use one name to define them.  Others are carefully 
specified by species because of distinctly different aspects between them.  
Tarragon and Sagebrush are both Artemisias but I would hate to taste Sagebrush
Chicken.

OTHER NAMES. Other Latin and common names, indexed at the end.

PARTS USED. These are listed in UPPER CASE.  The herb is presumed to be used 
dry.  All fresh plant uses are specified.  An Infusion or Decoction is always 
presumed to be from a dry botanical.

PREFERENCES. Under each plant part, I list each method of use in the 
descending order of their value.  Some herbs are better used as an infusion, 
and I list that first.  I list fresh tincture ahead of dry tinctures most of 
the time (if both forms are appropriate for the herb) based on my own 
experience, although they may not always be available in commerce.  My 
preferences also tilt towards those methods of using herbs that makes the 
greatest use of the least amount of plant mass. I have gathered many of these
plants and have developed preferences about their use.  When you have picked 
or grown your herbs, you quickly learn how to get the most from the least.  
Some botanicals are only available in commerce, and I rely on the many sources
for extraction principles: older Pharmacopaeas, Formularies and Dispensatories.
For plants never listed, their constituents usually give clear indications for
solubilities and media.  Whenever in doubt, I have followed personal
inclinations or the observations of the best plant pharmacist of the modern 
era, John Uri Lloyd.

DOSAGE:  These are all given for ADULTS; give kids simple stuff.  
Be conservative with older folks, the chronically ill, and nursing mothers.  
Always honor the basic premise of using herbal medicines; they work best on 
acute self-limiting problems and subacute or sub-clinical disease.  I have 
also been free with warnings, contra-indications and observations.  I have 
used and picked most of these plants and when I haven't, I have gone by the 
book.

STATUS OF PLANT: Since many plants are under environmental or gathering 
stress, I have added this to the format.  I have tried to view this globally. 
Bear in mind that even such a widely dispersed genus as Arnica will have some 
species or varieties that are endangered, even though as a genus it is VERY
abundant.

W/A (wildcrafted and abundant)

W/LA (wildcrafted and locally abundant in one biosphere or global area)

W/Rare (wildcrafted or poached and rare; use alternatives when possible)

W/C (wildcrafted and cultivated)

C (cultivated),  and finally

U (unknown...at least to me)                              Michael Moore 8/95

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MATERIA MEDICA
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ABIES (Tsuga canadensis, Canada Balsam, Hemlock Spruce) 
  BARK.  EXTERNAL: Weak Decoction. INTERNAL: Weak Decoction, 1-3 fluidounces.
  Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 5-20 drops.  Essential Oil, 2-5 drops.  
  STATUS : W/LA
ACACIA GREGGII (Catclaw Acacia)
  PODS/LEAVES.  Standard Infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces  
  STATUS : W/LA
ACACIA SENEGAL (Gum Arabic)
  One Tablespoon dissolved in 4 oz. water, flavored w/vanilla, cinnamon, etc. 
  Gum Arabic Mucilage, 1-2 teaspoons as needed.
  STATUS : W/A
ACHILLEA  (Yarrow, Milfoil, Plumajillo)
  WHOLE FLOWERING PLANT. Tincture [FRESH 1:2, DRY 1:5, 50% alcohol] 10 to 40 
  drops.  Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces.  
  ROOT.  Fresh Root Tincture, topical to gums as needed.  
  STATUS : W/A
*ACHLYS  (Vanilla Leaf)
  WHOLE LEAF. A simple steeped tea for occasional use only.
  A potential anti-coagulant (coumarin-containing).    
  STATUS : W/LA
*ACONITUM COLUMBIANUM  (Aconite, Western Monkshood)
  FLOWERING HERB. Fresh Herb Tincture, 1:4, topical in moderation, internal 
  1-5 drops to 4X a day.
  DRIED ROOT. Tincture [1:10, 70% alcohol] 
  FOR TOPICAL USE ONLY.DANGEROUS IN LARGER DOSES.     
  STATUS : W/LA 
*ACONITUM CARMICHAELI (CURED) (Fu-tse, Fo-tzu)
  CURED CHINESE ROOT-SLICES. 1/4 to 1 slice, eaten or boiled, to 2X a day. 
  DANGEROUS IN LARGER DOSES.
  STATUS : C
ACORUS CALAMUS (Calamus, Sweet Flag)
  RHIZOME/ROOT.  Tincture [FRESH 1:2,DRY 1:5,60% alcohol], 15-45 drops, to 4X 
  a day.  The dried leaves make a tasty simple tea.   
  STATUS : W/C
*ACTEA RUBRA  (A. arguta,  Baneberry)
  ROOT.  Fresh or Dry Tincture, [1:2, or 1:5, 80% alcohol] 10-20 drops to 3X 
  a day.
  STATUS : W/A
ADIANTUM (Maidenhair Fern)
  DRIED HERB. Standard Infusion, 1-3 fluid ounces; 8 ounces as hair rinse.  
  STATUS : W/LA
*ADONIS VERNALIS  (Pheasant's Eye)
  RECENT DRIED HERB. 1-2 GRAINS to 4 X a day. In reality, it presents little 
  advantage over pharmaceutical preparations of Digitalis  or Strophanthus.
  USE WITH CARE, AND NOT CONCURRENT W/OTHER DRUGS   
  STATUS : W/LA
*AESCULUS CALIFORNICA  (California Buckeye)
  BARK and FRUIT. Same as Aesculus glabra.
  USE WITH CARE.
  STATUS : W/LA 
*AESCULUS GLABRA (Ohio Buckeye)
  BARK and FRUIT.  Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 5-15 drops. 
  USE WITH CARE.
  STATUS : W/LA 
*AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM (Horse Chestnut)
  BARK and FRUIT. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 3-10 drops.
  USE WITH CARE.
  STATUS : W/A 
AGAR AGAR. Powdered or flaked refined mucilage from several seaweeds.
  Infusion, 1/2 to 2 tablespoons in water or fruit juice.
AGAVE (Century Plant, Maguey, American or False Aloe, Lechuguillla)
  Tincture [Fresh Leaf, 1:2, Dried Root, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-60 drops, to 4X
  a day.  The fresh leaf can induce a rash in some folks; test on arm first. 
  STATUS : W/C
AGRIMONIA (Agrimony)
  HERB.  Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces.  Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol, or Fresh
  Plant, 1:2], 1/4 to 1 teaspoon as needed.
  STATUS : W/A 
AGROPYRON REPENS (Triticum repens, Couchgrass)
  RHIZOME/STEMS. Cold Infusion, 2-4 fl. oz. Tincture [ 1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-60
  drops to 5X a day. Fluidextract [1:1, 50%  alcohol] 10-30 drops to 5X a day
  STATUS : W/A 
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA  (Tree of Heaven)
  BARK, FRUIT. Cold Infusion, 1-2 ounces, to 5X a day.
  STATUS : W/A 
ALCHEMILLA (Ladies Mantle)
  WHOLE PLANT. Standard Infusion, as needed
  STATUS : W/LA 
ALETRIS FARINOSA  (Star Grass. "True"(properly "False") Unicorn Root)
  RHIZOME. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-60 drops to 3X a day. Cold Infusion,
  1-3 ounces.  
  STATUS : W/Rare 
ALLIUM SATIVUM  (Garlic)
  BULB. Fresh Juice, 1/4 to 1 teaspoon.  Fresh Tincture [1:2] 15-40 drops.
  STATUS : C
ALNUS SERRULATA  (Tag Alder)
  BARK, fresh or recent only.  Strong Decoction, 1/2 to 2 tablespoons. Weak
  Decoction for external use. 
  STATUS : W/LA
*ALOE  (Aloes Socrotine, etc.)
  DRIED JUICE. Capsules, a single #0 or #00. Tincture [ 1:10, 50% alcohol] 
  15-60 drops.  Use with antispasmodic such as Acorus or Angelica.  
  STATUS : W/C
ALPINIA (Galangal)
  DRIED ROOT.  Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol] 30-90 drops as needed.  1-2 #00
  capsules to 3X a day.
  STATUS : C
ALTHEA  (Marshmallow or Hollyhock)
  ROOT. Cold Infusion or Fresh Tincture [1:2] as needed  
  HERB. Cold Infusion as needed, or moistened for poultice.
  STATUS : W/C
AMARANTHUS  (Pigweed, Alegria)
  WHOLE PLANT.  Standard Infusion as needed.
  STATUS : W/A
AMBROSIA   (Ragweed, Bursage, Yerba del Sapo)
  HERB. Standard Infusion, 1-2 ounces. Fresh Tincture [1:2] 20-40 drops, both 
  to 4X a day.  
  STATUS : W/A
AMMI MAJUS (Bishop's Weed)
  DRIED SEEDS.  4-6 grams a day, suspended in water or in capsule.  
  STATUS : W/A
AMMI VISNAGA (Khella, Bishops's Weed)
  SEEDS.  Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol], 60-120 drops to 4X a day.  
  Not advisable for extended use.  Whole seed CVS uses are rather inferior to
  the refined  constituents, but quite adequate for smooth-muscle relaxation.
  STATUS : W/C
*AMYGDALIS PERSICA  (Peach Tree)
  FRESH TWIGS. Cold Infusion, 1-2 oz. Tincture [1:2], 30-90 drops, both ad lib.
  STATUS : C
*ANAGALLIS  (Scarlet Pimpernel)
  HERB. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2] 5-15 drops.
  Not for extended use.
  STATUS : W/A
ANAPHALIS MARGARITACEA  (Pearly Everlasting)
  FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion, as needed.  Rubbed leaves mixed with hot
  water for poultice. 
  STATUS : W/A
*ANEMONE HIRSUTISSIMA  (Pulsatilla ludoviciana, Pasque Flower)
  FRESH PLANT. Tincture [1:2] 3-10 drops, to 4X a day.
  Use with care.
  STATUS : W/LA
*ANEMONE TUBEROSA  (Desert Anemone, Desert Pasque Flower)
  Same as previous.   
  STATUS : W/LA
ANEMOPSIS  (Yerba Mansa, Lizard Tail)
  ROOT.  Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 20-60 drops to
  5X  a day.  Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces similarly.  
  HERB.  Standard or Cold Infusion as needed.  
  STATUS : W/LA
ANGELICA
  ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 65% alcohol) 30-60 drops, to
  4X  a day.  Strong Decoction, 1-2 ounces  similarly.   
  SEED: Tincture (as previous), 10-30 drops, or several seeds chewed.
  STATUS : W/C
*ANGELICA SINENSIS  (Dong Quai, Tang Kwei)
  CURED CHINESE OR KOREAN ROOT.  Large slices, 1/16 to 1/8 a day,chewed and
  swallowed.  
  Tincture [1:5, 70%  alcohol] 5-20 drops 
  Capsules, #0, 1 to 3 a day.  
  STATUS : W/C
ANISUM  (Anise Seed)
  SEED. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces.  Spirit of Anise, 1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon,
  Oil  of Anise, 1-5 drops, all as needed
  STATUS : C
ANTENNARIA   (Cat's Paw, Pussy Toes, Mountain Everlasting)
  WHOLE PLANT.  Standard Infusion, 3-6 ounces to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
ANTHEMIS NOBILIS  (Roman Chamomile)
  FLOWERING HERB. Cold Infusion (bitter tonic),Standard Infusion (diaphoretic),
  both 2-4 ounces.
  STATUS : C
APIUM  (Celery)
  SEED. Simple Infusion, 1/2 to 1 teaspoon of seeds in cup of hot water.
  STATUS : C
*APOCYNUM CANNABINUM  (Dogbane, Canada Hemp)
  ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 5-20 drops, to 3X a day.
  USE CAREFULLY!
  STATUS : W/A
ARALIA HISPIDA or SPINOSA  (Dwarf Elder, Hercules Club, Devil's Walkingstick)
  ROOT or BARK.  Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 5-25 drops, to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
ARALIA NUDICAULIS  ("American Sarsaprilla")
  ROOT. Cold Infusion 2-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 60% alc.] 15-30 drops, both
  to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
ARALIA RACEMOSA  [including A. californica]  (Spikenard, California Spikenard)
  ROOT.Tincture [Fresh Root,1:2, Recent Dry Root,1:5, 50% alcohol] 10-30 drops.
  Strong Decoction or Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces.
  STATUS : W/LA
ARBUTUS  (Madrone)
  LEAVES.  Same as Arctostaphylos spp.
  STATUS : W/LA
ARCTIUM  (Burdock)
  ROOT. Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Fluidextract [1:1, 60% alcohol] 15-30 drops.
  Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-90 drops, all 3X a
  day.
  SEED. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 10-25 drops.
  STATUS : W/C
ARCTOSTAPHYLOS  (Uva Ursi, Manzanita, Bearberry)
  LEAVES.  Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-60 drops in 8 oz. of water, to 3X a
  day. Standard Infusion 3-4 ounces to 3X a day.   For sitz bath, 8-12 ounces
  Standard Infusion in warm water; sit in it morning and evening.
  STATUS : W/LA
ARGEMONE  (Prickly Poppy, Cardo Santo)
  HERB.  Cold Infusion, 2-3 ounces, to 3X a day.
  For short duration of use only.
  STATUS : W/A
ARISAEMA  (Jack-in-the-Pulpit)
  CORM.  Tincture [Fresh Corm, slightly wilted, 1:2, 50% alcohol] 2-10 drops.
  STATUS : W/LA 
*ARISTOLOCHIA CALIFORNICA  (California Snakeroot, Calif. Dutchman's Pipe
  WHOLE PLANT. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2] 5-20 drops to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA (?)
*ARISTOLOCHIA SERPENTARIA (Virginia Snakeroot, Serpentaria)
  ROOT and HERB. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 70% alcohol] 5-20
  drops to 3X a day.
  For extended use, use only low doses, and within a formula.
  STATUS : W/LA (?)
*ARISTOLOCHIA WATSONII (Indian Root, Raiz del Indio)
  Same as previous, but safer for extended use, as is A. californica.
  STATUS : W/LA 
ARMORACIA (Cochlearia, Horseradish)
  FRESH ROOT.  Grated root, 1/2 to 1-1/2 tspn. (w/some honey if needed)   STATUS : W/C
*ARNICA  (A. montana, A. cordifolia, A. latiflora, etc.)
  WHOLE PLANT. Fresh plant, flower or root tincture [1:2], dry flowers or herb
  tincture, [1:5, 50% alcohol] and dry root tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol].
  EXTERNAL is diluted with one or two parts of water, applied as needed.
  INTERNAL use  3-10 drops.
  TAKE INTERNALLY WITH CARE
  STATUS : W/C 
*ARTEMISIA  ABSINTHIUM  (Wormwood)
  HERB.  Cold Infusion, 1-3 ounces.
  STATUS : W/C
*ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA  (Sagebrush)
  HERB. Cold Infusion, 1-2 ounces.
  STATUS : W/A
*ARTEMISIA VULGARIS  (Mugwort, California Mugwort)
  HERB. Tincture [1:5, 50% alc.] 10-25 drops;
  Acetum Tincture [1:5, in vinegar] as needed externally.
  Standard Infusion (drunk hot) for diaphoretic, Cold Infusion as tonic.
  STATUS : W/C
ASAFETIDA  (Ferula asafetida,Devil's Dung, Stinkasant)
  GUM. Tincture [1:5, 85% alcohol] 5-20 drops.
  STATUS : W(rare)/C
ASARUM  (Wild Ginger, Canada Snakeroot)
  ROOT.  Tincture [Fresh Root 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 20-50 drops in
  hot  water.
  HERB. Standard Infusion or simple tea as needed.
  STATUS : W/LA
*ASCLEPIAS ASPERULA  (Inmortal, Antelope Horns, Spider Milkweed)
  ROOT. Tincture [1:5,50% alcohol] 5-30 drops, Capsules, #00, 1-2, to 3X a day
  STATUS : W/LA
*ASCLEPIAS CORNUTA  (Common Milkweed)
  ROOT. Same as above.
  STATUS : W/A
*ASCLEPIAS INCARNATA  (Swamp Milkweed)
  ROOT. Same as above.
  STATUS : W/A
*ASCLEPIAS SUBULATA  (Desert Milkweed)
  ROOT.  Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 10-20 drops in hot water, to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
*ASCLEPIAS TUBEROSA  (Pleurisy Root)
  ROOT. Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [Fresh, 1:2, Dry, 1:5, 50% alcohol]
  30-90 drops. Capsules, #00, 1-3, all to 3X  a day.
  STATUS : W/C
ASPARAGUS OFFICINALE
  ROOT.  Tincture [Fresh, 1:2, Dry, 1:5, 50% alcohol],30-60 drops in water,
  3X a day.
  STATUS : W/C
*ASPIDIUM  (Dryopteris filix-mas,  Male Fern)
  OLEORESIN, ROOT.  Oleoresin in capsules, 2 grams; powdered root in capsules
  10-15 grams.  Prepare with epsom salt purgative in the evening, take capsules
  in morning, have a light lunch, and another purgative in evening.
  WARNING: Consume no oils, fats or alcohol the day the capsules are taken,and
  the light lunch should contain NO fatty foods.
  USE WITH CARE.
  STATUS : U 
ASPIDOSPERMA  (Quebrache Bark)
  BARK.  Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 15-30 drops, to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA 
ASTRAGALUS MEMBRANACEUS  (Huang-Chi)
  SLICED ROOT.  Cold Infusion, 2-3 ounces to 3X a day. Fluidextract [1:1, 55%
  alcohol] 10-15 drops to 3X a day.  Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol]  30-60 drops,
  4X a day.
  STATUS : W/C 
AVENA  (A. sativa,  A. fatua, Oats, Wild Oats.)
  UNRIPE FRESH SEED, w/"Milky" center.  Fresh Tincture [1:2], 10-20 drops, to
  4X a day.
  STRAW (dry but green stems). Standard Infusion, 4-8 ounces.
  STATUS : W/C 
BALSAM OF PERU (Myroxylum  pereirae, Peruvian Balsam)
  RESIN (Dark Brown, syrupy).
  EXTERNAL: Mix one part balsam with two parts of lanolin or lard.
  INTERNAL: 5-10 drops in capsule, taken with a little food.
  STATUS : U
BALSAM OF TOLU. (Myroxylum toluiferum)
  RESIN. (Light Brown, syrupy, aromatic). TINCTURE:  One part resin in five of
  ethanol; take in 15-30 drop doses or add to some boiling water for steam
  inhalation.
  STATUS : U
BALSAMORHIZA  (Balsam Root)
  ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 65% alcohol], 20-50 drops in
  hot.water, to 4X a day.
  LEAVES. Powdered, with water as poultice.
  STATUS : W/LA
BAPTISIA  (Wild Indigo Root)
  ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol],
  WHOLE PLANT. Fresh Tincture [1:2], both taken 10-25 drops, to 3X a day.
  USE WITH CARE; better long term in formulas
  STATUS : W/A 
BAROSMA (Agothasma, Buchu)
  LEAVES.  Cold Infusion (rewarmed) 1-3 ounces. Tincture  [1:5, 80% alcohol],
  30-60 drops in water. Both forms to 4X a day.
  STATUS : U 
BERBERIS VULGARIS  (Common Barberry)
  ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 10-60 drops. Cold Infusion, 1-3  ounces.
  Capsules, #00, 1-3.  All to 3X a day.  See MAHONIA (Oregon Grape) as well.
  STATUS : W/A 
BETULA   (Birch)
  BARK. Strong Decoction, 1-2 ounces, to 4X a day; external wash.
  LEAVES. Standard Infusion as bath or wash, as needed.
  STATUS : W/A 
BIDENS  (Tickseed, Spanish Needles, Te de Coral)
  HERB. Cold or Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces.Tincture [Fresh,1:2, Dry, 1:5,
  50% alcohol] 45-90 drops.
  STATUS : W/A 
BRICKELLIA  (Prodigiosa, Hamula)
  HERB.  Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, to 2X a day.  Tincture [1:5, 50%
  alcohol], 30-60 drops to 3X a day.  Use the infusion for Type II diabetes,
  tincture as tonic.
  STATUS : W/LA 
*BRYONIA  (Bryony)
  ROOT.  Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, recent Dry Root, 1:5, 50% alcohol], 2-10
  drops to 3X a day.  
  USE WITH CARE; better in small, frequent doses.
  STATUS : W/LA 
BURSERA MICROPHYLLA  (Elephant Tree, Torote)
  GUM. Tincture [1:5, 80% alcohol], 5-20 drops, and diluted for mouth wash.
  TWIGS/LEAVES.  Fresh plant tincture [1:2], 10-30 drops.
  STATUS : W/LA 
*CACALIA DECOMPOSITA (Odontotrichum decompositum,  Maturin, Maturique)
  ROOT. Tincture  [Fresh Root 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 70% alcohol), 15-30 drops.
  Usually for acute hyperglycemic episodes; I wouldn't advise extended use.
  STATUS : W/LA (?) 
CAFFEA ARABICA  (Coffee)
  ROASTED BEANS.  Black, freshly brewed or cold infusion, 4-12 ounces.
  STATUS : (gimme a break!!)
CALENDULA OFFICINALIS   (European Marigold)
  FLOWERS.  Tincture [Fresh Flowers, 1:2, Dry Flowers, 1:5, 70% alcohol] 5-30
  drops, to 4X a day.  Dilute with several parts of water for topical use.
  STATUS : W/C
CAMPSIS RADICANS  (Trumpet Creeper)
  HERB. Cold or Standard Infusion as needed externally, 1-3 ounces internally.
  STATUS : W/C
CANNABIS SATIVA  (Marijuana, Hemp)
  FLOWERING TOPS.Tincture [Fresh Herb, 1:2, Dry Herb, 1:5, 95% alcohol] 5-30
  drops. Smokers need higher dose. 
  ILLEGAL TO POSSESS AT PRESENT.
  STATUS : W/LA/C
*CAPSELLA BURSA-PASTORIS  (Shepherd's Purse)
  WHOLE PLANT. Tincture (Fresh Plant, 1:2, recent Dry Plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol]
  20-60 drops.
  STATUS : W/A
CAPSICUM  (Cayenne, African Bird Peppers)
  FRUIT. Tincture [1:5, 95% alcohol] 5-15 drops.  Capsules, #0, 1-2.
  STATUS : W/C
CARDAMOMUM  (Cardamom Seeds)
  SEEDS.  Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 5-10 drops...or chew a couple seeds,
  already.
  STATUS : W/LA/C
CARTHAMUS TINCTORIA  (Safflower, American, Mexican or Bastard "Saffron")
  FLOWERS. Standard Infusion 4-8 ounces.
  STATUS : W/C
CARUM  (Caraway Seed)
  SEED. Spirit of Caraway (1 part essential oil, 10 parts ethanol) 10-20 drops
  in water, or some chewed seeds or simple tea for indigestion.
  STATUS : W/C
CARYOPHYLLUS  (Cloves)
  UNRIPE BUDS. Essential Oil: 1:4 drops in capsule, taken with food. A piece
  of oil-moistened cotton on or in a tooth, avoiding gums if possible.
  STATUS : C
*CASSIA MARILANDICA  (American Senna)
  LEAVES. Standard Infusion, 3/4 Senna, 1/4 Coriander Seed (antispasmodic),
  4-8 ounces.  Take in evening for morning effect.
  STATUS : W/LA
CASTANEA  (Chestnut)
  LEAVES.  Standard Infusion, 1-4 ounces.
  STATUS : W/C
CASTELA EMORYI (Holacantha emoryi, Chaparro Amargosa)
  "HERB". Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry Plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 20-50 drops
  (as anti-microbial), 5-10 drops (as bitter tonic).
  STATUS : W/LA
*CAULOPHYLLUM  (Blue Cohosh)
  RHIZOME / ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 5-20 drops, usually in formula
  context.
  STATUS : W/LA
CEANOTHUS  (Red Root, New Jersey Tea)
  ROOT.  Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5,
  50% alcohol] 30-90 drops, to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
CENTAURIUM  (Erythraea,  Centaury)
  WHOLE PLANT.  Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2] 10-20 drops before meals.
  Cold Infusion 1-2 ounces, also before meals.
  STATUS : W/LA
CENTELLA ASIATICA  (Hydrocotyle asiatica, Gotu Kola, Brahmi)
  HERB. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2], 15-30 drops to 3X a day. Standard Infusion
  1-2 ounces.  Dry Herb Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 20-40 drops, to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA/C
CENTHRANTUS RUBER (Red Valerian)
  SAME AS Valeriana
  STATUS : W/C
CEPHALANTHUS  (Button Bush)
  BARK/TWIGS. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry Plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 10-30
  drops, to 3X a day.  
  Best for short term use.
  STATUS : W/A
CERCOCARPUS  (Mountain Mahogany, Ponil)
  TWIGS and STEMS.  Strong Decoction, 2-3 ounces to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
CEREUS GRANDIFLORUS  (Selenicereus, Peniocereus,  Night-Blooming Cereus)
  FRESH STEMS. Fresh Tincture [1:2], 5-15 drops (Selenicereus spp.);
  10-25 drops, (Peniocereus greggii).
  Either one to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
CETRARIA  (Iceland Moss)
  DRY SEAWEED. 2-4 grams boiled in 8 oz. of fruit juice, drunk WARM.
  STATUS : W/semiC
CHAMAELIRIUM (Helonias,  Unicorn Root )
  RHIZOME and ROOT.  Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 10-40 drops.
  Best in lower doses in a formula context.
  STATUS : W/Rare
CHELIDONIUM  (Greater Celandine)
  WHOLE PLANT.  Fresh Plant Tincture, [1:2] 10-25 drops. Alone, for short term
  use; safe for extended use as a low dose formula constituent.
  STATUS : W/A 
CHELONE  (Balmony, Turtlehead)
  HERB. Tincture [fresh plant, 1:2], 10-20 drops to 3X a day.  
  Cold Infusion, 1-3 ounces, to 3X a day.
  Dry Plant Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol], 30-60 drops, to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA 
*CHENOPODIUM  (Epazote, Wormseed)
  SEEDS. As Vermifuge: take laxative in evening, fast twelve hours the
  following day, take 2 grams of seeds [3 or 4 #00 capsules] with a soothing
  tea, such as Althea or Ulmus, wait 2 hours and follow with a full dose of
  Castor Oil.
  HERB: As Emmenagogue: Standard Infusion, 2-3 ounces.
  USE BOTH SEEDS and HERB WITH CARE. 
  The herb, used to spice beans, is perfectly safe.
  STATUS : W/C 
CHILOPSIS LINEARIS  (Desert Willow, Mimbre)
  BARK and TWIGS. Strong Decoction or Cold Infusion, 3-6 ounces to 3X a day,
  WHOLE PLANT. The powder for topical application.
  STATUS : W/LA 
CHIMAPHILA  (Pipsissewa, Prince's Pine)
  HERB. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol), 20-50 drops,
  to 4X a day.  Standard Infusion 4-8 ounces.
  STATUS : W/LA 
CHIONANTHUS  (Fringetree)
  BARK. Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces.  Tincture [Fresh Bark, 1:2, Dry Bark, 1:5,
  65% alcohol] 30-60 drops.
  LEAF. Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces.
  STATUS : W/LA 
CHOROGALUM  (Amole Lily)
  FRESH BULB. Grate 2-4 tablespoons in cheesecloth, rub into a froth in a cup,
  of water, and wash or shampoo.
  STATUS : W/LA 
CHLOROPHYLLIN  (Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin, Chlorophyl "JJ")
  1 scant teaspoon in a gallon of water, 2-6 ounces to 3X a day.
  WARNING: this will color feces a festive green.
  STATUS : C 
CHRYSANTHEMUM PARTHENIUM (Tanacetum , Pyrethrum,  Feverfew)
  HERB.  Cold Infusion 2-4 ounces.  Tincture [Fresh plant, 1:2, Dry herb, 1:5,
  50% alcohol] 30-60 drops, to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/C 
CICHORIUM  (Chicory)
  ROOT.  Strong Decoction, 3-6 ounces, up to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/C 
*CIMICIFUGA RACEMOSA  (Macrotys,  Black Cohosh)
  RHIZOME/ROOT. Tincture  [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 80% alcohol], 10-25
  drops.  Capsules, #00, 1-2, both to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA 
*CINCHONA   (Peruvian Bark, Quinine Bark)
  BARK.  Cold Infusion, 2-3 ounces, to 3X a day.
  USE WITH CARE.
  STATUS : W/C 
CINERARIA  (Senecio cineraria,  Dusty Miller) 
  Sterile Juice, as a pharmaceutical preparation from a homeopathic supplier
  or as a prescription preparation from Walker Pharmacals, St. Louis, MO.
  STATUS : W/C 
CINNAMOMUM  (Cinnamon, Canela)
  BARK. Standard Infusion 2-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol, 5% glycerin]
  20-50 drops, both to 4X a day.  
  ESSENTIAL OIL. 2-5 drops in capsule.
  STATUS : W/LA/C 
CISTUS  (Helianthemum,  Rock Rose)
  FLOWERING HERB. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] diluted for topical use with
  two to four parts of water.
  STATUS : W/A 
CLEMATIS   (Virgin's Bower)
  RECENT HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-6 ounces, to 2X a day. Tincture [1:5, 50%
  alcohol] 10-40 drops, to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/A 
CNICUS BENEDICTUS  (Blessed or Holy Thistle)
  FLOWERING HERB. Cold Infusion, 4-6 ounces. Tincture [Fresh Herb, 1:2, Dry
  Herb, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 20-40 drops in hot water, both to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/C 
COLA NITIDA  (Kola Nut)
  SEED.  Strong Decoction, 2-6 ounces, to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/C 
COLLINSONIA  (Stone Root, Horse Balm)
  ROOT and HERB.  Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2] 20-40 drops to 3X a day.
  Tincture  [Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 45-60 dropsto 4X a day (inferior).
  STATUS : W/LA 
COMMIPHORA  (Myrrh Gum)
  RESIN. Tincture [ 1:5, 95% alcohol] 5-20 drops. Capsules, #0, 1-2, both to
  3X a day.  Topically, dilute tincture with water as needed.
  STATUS : U
CONDALIA  (Lotebush, Tecomblate)
  ROOT AND BARK. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces to 4X a day, as needed when used
  topically
  STATUS : W/LA
*CONVALLARIA  (Lily of the Valley)
  ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root,1:2, recent Dry Root,1:5,65% alcohol] 5-20 drops.
  USE WITH CARE.
  STATUS : W/LA
COPAIFERA  (Copaiba)
  ESSENTIAL OIL.  5-10 drops in capsule, taken with food. Topically, dilute
  with three parts of ethanol before applying.
  STATUS : U
COPTIS  (Gold Thread)
  ROOT/HERB. Tincture [Fresh plant, 1:2, Dry root, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-60
  drops, to 3X a day. Topically as needed, either diluted, or Strong Decoction
  STATUS : W/C
CORALLORHIZA  (Coral Root, Crawley)
  ROOT.  Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-90 drops in
  hot water.  Cold Infusion 3-6 ounces, reheated.
  STATUS : W/LA
CORIANDRUM  (Coriander, Cilantro)
  SEED.  Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol] 10-20 drops.  Seeds chewed as needed.
  STATUS : C
CORNUS  (Dogwood, Red Osier, Bunchberry)
  ROOT, STEM, BARK.  Cold or Standard Infusion, 3-6 ounces, to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
*CORYDALIS AUREUS  (Golden Smoke)
  HERB. Tincture [1:5,50% alcohol] 10-40 drops; small, frequent doses are best.
  STATUS : W/A
*CORYNANTHE (Pausinystalia Johimbe,  Yohimbe)
  BARK.  Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol] 5-30 drops.
  USE WITH CARE.
  STATUS : U
CRATAEGUS  (Hawthorn)
  BERRIES, FLOWERING BRANCHES. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry Berries, 1:5,
  60% alcohol] 10-30 drops, to 3X a day.
  Cold Infusion (berries) 1-2 ounces, to 2X a day.
  STATUS : W/C
*CROCUS  (True Saffron)
  STIGMAS.  Tincture [1:5, 95% alcohol] 5-20 drops.
  STATUS : C
CUBEBA (Piper cubeba,  Cubeb Berries)
  UNRIPE FRUIT. Tincture [1:5, 80% alcohol] 10-30 drops.  Capsules, #00, 1-3. 
  To 3X a day, for up to a week.
  STATUS : W/LA/C
CUPRESSUS (Cypress)
  GREEN FOLIAGE. EXTERNAL: Tincture [Fresh Herb, 1:2] straight, or diluted
  with two parts water.
  INTERNAL: Standard Infusion [lightly roasted twigs], 2-4 ounces.
  STATUS : W/A
CURCUMA  (Turmeric)
  ROOT.  Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol], 10-30 drops. 1 teaspoon of powder
  suspended in water.  Colors mouth a disturbing yellow.
  STATUS : C
*CUSCUTA  (Dodder)
  HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, for short duration use.
  STATUS : C  (...a little joke...)
CYMOPTERUS FENDLERI  (Chimaja)
  HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces.  SEEDS chewed as needed.
  STATUS : W/LA
CYNARA  (Artichoke)
  HERB IN FLOWER. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol]
  30-90 drops, either to 3X a day.
  STATUS : C
CYNOGLOSSUM OFFICINALIS  (Hound's Tongue)
  HERB (in summer) ROOT (in fall).  Standard Infusion,1-3 ounces, to 3X a day.
  For short term use; may irritate liver if used excessively.
  STATUS : W/A
CYPRIPEDIUM  (Lady Slipper Orchid)
  ROOT.  Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 20-90 drops, to 3X a day.  
  PLANT IS RARE IN MOST AREAS (and things are not getting any better).
  Use other medicines whenever possible, such as Epipactis or Valeriana
  STATUS : W/Rare!!
*DATURA  (Jimson Weed, Stramonium, Thorn Apple)
  LEAVES.  Tincture [1:10, 60% alcohol] 3-10 drops to 3X a day.
  Leaf mixed w/Tussilago and smoked for incipient asthma. 
  DANGEROUS IN MODERATE DOSES.
  STATUS : W/A
*DAUCUS CAROTA  (Carrot, Wild Carrot)
  SEED.  Standard Infusion, 2-6 ounces.  Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 20-60
  drops,  both to 2X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
DELPHINIUM   (Larkspur, Delphinium, Stavesacre)
  RIPE SEEDS. Tincture  [1:2, 95% alcohol], diluted in two or three parts of
  water for topical use.
  STATUS : W/A
DICENTRA CANADENSIS  (Turkey Corn)
  CORM.  Cold Infusion 1-4 ounces, to 3X a day.  Best used in formulas.
  STATUS : W/LA
DICENTRA FORMOSA  (Bleeding Heart)
  ROOT.   Fresh Root Tincture [1:2], 10-20 drops or applied topically.
  Dry Root  Tincture, [1:5, 50% alcohol] 15-30 drops. 
  HERB. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol, 25-50 drops, all to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
DIOSCOREA VILLOSA  (Wild Yam)
  ROOT. Tincture [Fresh ROOT, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-100 drops,
  to 4X a day. Fluidextract [1:1, 55% alcohol] 10-25 drops.
  Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
DIPSACUS  (Teasel)
  HERB.  Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
DRACONTIUM  (Symplocarpus,  Skunk Cabbage)
  RHIZOME AND ROOT.  Tincture [Fresh Root 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 50% alcohol],
  20-60 drops.
  STATUS : W/A
DROSERA  (Sundew)
  HERB.  Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2], 5-15 drops to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
ECHINACEA ANGUSTIFOLIA ,E.PALLIDA  (Ks. Snakeroot, Purple Coneflower)
  ROOT and FLOWERS.  Tincture [Fresh Plant 1:2, Dry Plant, 1:5, 70% alcohol],
  30-100 drops as needed.  Cold Infusion 2-6 ounces, all to 5X a day.
  Fluidextract  [1:1, 65% alcohol] 10-30 drops.
  STATUS : W/LA/C
ECHINACEA PURPUREA  (Missouri Snakeroot, Purple Coneflower)
  ROOT/FLOWERS. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2] 30-100 drops.  Dry Plant Tincture
  1-2 teaspoons to 5X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA/C
ELEUTHEROCOCCUS (Acanthopanax,  Siberian Ginseng)
  ROOT.  Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 20-60 drops. Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces,
  both to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA/C
ENCELIA FARINOSA (Incienso, Brittlebush
  LEAVES AND STEMS.  Strong Decoction, 2-3 ounces, to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
EPHEDRA VIRIDIS  (Mormon Tea, American Ephedra, Canutillo)
  HERB.  Standard Infusion, as needed.
  STATUS : W/A
EPHEDRA VULGARIS  (Ma Huang, Chinese Ephedra)
  HERB. Standard Infusion, 1-4 ounces, to 2X a day. Unlike the previous, this
  type contains the alkaloid Ephedrine and should be used in moderation.
  STATUS : W/semiC
EPIGEA  (Trailing Arbutus)
  LEAVES.  Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
EPIPACTIS GIGANTEA  (Stream Orchid, "Helleborine")
  WHOLE PLANT.  Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-90
  drops. An equivalent to the far rarer Cypripedium.
  STATUS : W/LA
EPILOBIUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM  (Chamaenerium, Fireweed, Giant Willow-Herb)
  HERB IN FLOWER.  Standard Infusion as needed.
  STATUS : W/A
EQUISETUM  ARVENSE  (Horsetail)
  HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, topically as hair rinse. Use only herbs
  gathered upstream...inorganic fertilizer  runoff alters the chemistry.
  STATUS : W/A
EQUISETUM HYEMALE  (Scouring Rush)
  HERB.  Standard Infusion for external use.]
  STATUS : W/A
ERECHTITES  (Fireweed)
  ESSENTIAL OIL.  5-10 drops in capsule, to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
EREMOCARPUS  (Turkey Mullein)
  HERB.  Standard Infusion, 1-3 ounces, or 8 ounces in bathwater.
  STATUS : W/LA
ERIGERON CANADENSE (Conyza canadensis, Canadian Fleabane)
  RECENT FLOWERING HERB.  Standard Infusion 2-4 ounces, to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
ERIODICTYON  (Yerba Santa)
  LEAVES (from current year's growth). Tincture [Fresh Herb,1:2, Dry Herb,1:5,
  75% alcohol] 20-30 drops, to 5X a day. 
  Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces as needed.
  STATUS : W/LA
ERIOGONUM  (Buckwheat Bush)
  FLOWERING TOPS.  Standard Infusion, 2-8 ounces.
  STATUS : W/A
ERODIUM  (Storksbill, Alfilerillo)
  HERB. Standard Infusion as needed.
  STATUS : W/A
ERYNGIUM YUCCAFOLIUM (Eryngo, Rattlesnake Master, Button Snakeroot)
  WHOLE PLANT.  Fresh Plant Tincture, 1:2, 15-30 drops in warm water.
  ROOT. Weak Decoction, 4-8 ounces.  Dry Root Tincture, [1:5, 60% alcohol],
  20-40 drops, in cup of water.  All forms to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
ESCHSCHOLTZIA CALIFORNICA  (California Poppy)
  FLOWERING PLANT.  Fresh Plant Tincture, [1:2] 15-25 drops, to 3X a day. Dry
  herb, Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces.
  STATUS : W/C
EUCALYPTUS  
  LEAVES.Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, to 4X a day.
  ESSENTIAL OIL,1-5 drops in capsule.
  STATUS : W/C
*EUONYMUS (Wahoo, Burning Bush)
  BARK. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 10-30 drops. Cold Infusion, 1-2 ounces,
  both to 2X a day. 
  Avoid prolonged use; Euonymus  can irritate the liver.
  STATUS : W/LA
EUPATORIUM PERFOLIATUM  (Boneset)
  FLOWERING HERB. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2], 20-40 drops in hot water. Dry
  herb, Cold Infusion (tonic), Standard Infusion (diaphoretic), 2-6 ounces,
  to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/C
EUPATORIUM PURPUREUM  (Gravel Root, Queen of the Meadow)
  ROOT. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces, to 4X a day. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2,
  Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-90 drops in cup of warm water.
  STATUS : W/A
EUPHRASIA  (Eyebright)
  HERB. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-90 drops,
  both to 4X a day.
  STATUS : U
FILIPENDULA  (Spiraea, Meadowsweet)
  FLOWERING HERB.  Fresh Tincture [1:2], 60-90 drops, Dry Tincture [1:5, 50%
  alcohol], 90-120 drops, Standard Infusion, 3-6 ounces all to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
FOENICULUM  (Fennel Seed)
  SEED.  Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-60 drops in warm water as needed.
  Standard Infusion as needed.
  STATUS : C
*FOUQUIERIA SPLENDENS (Ocotillo)
  FRESH BARK.  Tincture, [1:2] 10-30 drops, to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
FRAGARIA  (Strawberry)
  HERB.  Standard Infusion as needed.
  STATUS : W/C
*FRANGULA  (Rhamnus frangula, Alder Buckthorn)
  Capsules, #00, 1-3, taken with warm water at night.
  STATUS : W/LA
FREMONTIA CALIFORNICA (Fremontodendron,  California Slippery Elm)
  BARK AND LEAVES. Cold or Standard Infusion as needed.
  STATUS : W/LA (?)
FRAXINUS  (Ash)
  BARK.  Cold or Standard infusion 2-4 ounces to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
FUCUS  (Bladderwrack, seawrack)
  WHOLE PLANT. Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Capsules, #00, 1-2, both to 2X a day.
  STATUS : W/C
FUMARIA (Fumitory)
  DRIED HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5,50% alcohol], 45-90
  drops.
  STATUS : W/A
*GALEGA  (Goat's Rue)
  DRIED HERB.  Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces.
  STATUS : W/A
GALIUM APARINE  (Cleavers, Bedstraw)
  WHOLE PLANT.  Cold or Standard Infusion, as needed.  Fresh Plant Tincture
  [1:2] 1-2 teaspoons. Fresh plant juice, 1/2 to 1 teaspoon, all to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
*GARRYA (Silk Tassel, Cuauchichic, Quinine Bush)
  LEAF.  Tincture [Fresh leaf, 1:2, Dry Leaf, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 45-60 drops to
  5X a day.  Leaf, Cold Infusion, 2-3 ounces, to 4X a day. 
  ROOT BARK [Tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 10-20 drops to 5X a day,  
  Use moderately, and NOT with other anti-cholinergics.
  STATUS : W/LA
GAULTHERIA  (Wintergreen)
  ESSENTIAL OIL, INTERNALLY: 2-5 drops in capsule.
  EXTERNALLY, diluted with four parts vegetable oil for liniment.
  RECENT HERB. Standard Infusion in frequent 2-4 ounce doses.
  STATUS : U
*GELSEMIUM  (Yellow Jasmine)
  ROOT.  Tincture [Fresh Root 1:2, Dry Root, 1:10, 65% alcohol] 2-10 drops.
  DANGEROUS IN LARGER DOSES
  STATUS : W/LA
GENTIANA  (Gentian)
  ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root 1:2,Dry Root,1:5, 50% alcohol] 5-20 drops before
  each meal.
  STATUS : W/A/C
GERANIUM  (Cranesbill, Alum Root)
  ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol, 10% glycerin] in 1/2 to 1 teaspoon doses.
  Strong Decoction, 1-4 ounces, both to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
GEUM  (Avens)
  WHOLE PLANT IN FLOWER. Standard Infusion, as needed.
  STATUS : W/A
GINKGO BILOBA  (Maidenhair Tree)
  LEAVES.  Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-60
  drops to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/C
GLECHOMA (Ground Ivy, Nepeta hederacea) 
  LEAVES. Fresh Plant Tincture (1:2), 5-15 drops as needed. Standard Infusion,
  1-3 ounces to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
*GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA  (Licorice)
  ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 3-60 drops. Strong Decoction, 1-3 ounces,
  either to 3X a day.  Can occasion sodium retention.
  STATUS : C
*GLYCYRRHIZA LEPIDOTA  (American Licorice)
  ROOT. Strong Decoction, 1-3 ounces, to 3X a day. Topically, the decoction as
  an antimicrobial.
  STATUS : W/A
GNAPHALIUM  (Cudweed, Everlasting)
  FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion, 3-6 ounces to 3X a day. Topical, as needed
  STATUS : W/A
*GOSSYPIUM  (Cotton)
  ROOT BARK. Fresh Bark Tincture, [1:2], 30-60 drops, to 3X a day. Recent Dry
  Bark Tincture, [1:5, 50% alcohol] 1-2 teaspoons, to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/C
GRANATUM  (Punica granatum, Pomegranate)
  ROOT BARK. Cold Infusion, 1-3 ounces, to 3X a day. For tapeworms, alkaloid
  or prescription treatment is the only rational approach.  The  bark will
  shrink membranes and inhibits tapeworms, but does NOT kill them.
  STATUS : W/C
*GRATIOLA (Hedge Nettle, Hedge Hyssop)
  ROOT/RHIZOMES. Tinctures (Fresh Root, [1:2], Dry Root [1:5, 65% alcohol]),
  5-15 drops to 3X a day.  Cold Infusion, 1-4 tablespoons similarly.
  Do not use in acute, inflammatory conditions.
  MAY BE TOXIC IN EXCESS 
  STATUS : W/LA
GRINDELIA  (Gumweed, Yerba del Buey)
  FLOWERING TOPS. Tincture (Fresh Herb, [1:2], Dry Herb, [1:5, 70% alcohol]),
  15-40 drops to 5X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
GUAIACUM ANGUSTIFOLIA (Porlieri, Guayacan)
  BARK AND WOOD.  Fresh Tincture [1:2] 10-25 drops in water, frequently.
  As a gargle, one part tincture in four parts hot water.
  STATUS : W/LA
GUAIACUM OFFICINALE (Lignum Vitae, Guaiac Wood)
  BARK  OR WOOD. Tincture [1:5, 95% alcohol] 5-15 drops in water, frequently.
  As a gargle, the same as above.
  STATUS : W/LA
GUTIERREZIA  (Escoba de la Vibora)
  FLOWERING HERB.  Standard Infusion, 8-12 ounces in bathwater.
  STATUS : W/A
HAEMATOXYLON  (Logwood, Brazil)
  HEARTWOOD.  Cold Infusion, 2-6 ounces.
  STATUS : W/A
HAMAMELIS  (Witch Hazel)
  TWIGS AND LEAVES.  Tincture [Fresh Herb, 1:2] 10-60 drops as needed, and
  diluted for topical use.  
  BARK. Servicable as Standard Decoction topically.
  STATUS : W/C
HARPAGOPHYTUM PROCUMBENS  (Devil's Claw)
  TUBERS. Capsules, #0, 2-4 in evenings.  Cold Infusion 4-6 ounces similarly.
  Strong Tincture [1:2, 60% alcohol], 1/2 to 1 teaspoons. Some recommend that
  two weeks on and two weeks off is the best approach to Devil's Claw. I have
  found a month of continuous use is the best way to begin.
  STATUS : W/Rare/Cult.(w/little success)
*HEDEOMA  (American Pennyroyal, Poleo Chino)
  HERB.  Tincture [Fresh Plant,1:2,Dry Plant (recent) 1:5,50% alcohol] 20-60
  drops drops in hot water.  Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, to 5X a day.
  ESSENTIAL OIL. diluted with vegetable oil or grain alcohol as an insect
  repellent.
  STATUS : W/C
HEDERA HELIX  (Ivy)
  LEAVES.  Fresh Tincture [1:2] 15-30 drops as needed for for topical use.
  GUM.  Tincture [1:5, 70% alcohol] 5-15 drops.  
  It may be a topical irritant for a few individuals; test on inner wrist
  first if prone to dermatitis.
  STATUS : W/A
HELENIUM HOOPESII  (Dugaldia,  Yerba del Lobo, Orange Sneezeweed)
  WHOLE PLANT. Tincture [Fresh plant, 1:2, Dry Plant, 1:5, 60% alcohol] as a
  counterirritant liniment.
  STATUS : W/LA
HELIANTHEMUM  (Cistus,  Rock Rose, Frostwort)
  FLOWERING TOPS.  Tincture [Fresh Plant 1:2, Dry Plant, 1:5, 60% alcohol],
  30-90 drops.  Cold Infusion as gargle, douche, topical poultice.
  STATUS : W/A
HELIOPSIS LONGIPES  (Raiz del Oro, Chilcuan)
  ROOT. Piece of root chewed for gingivitis and periodontal disease. Chronic
  overuse can cause intestinal irritation.
  STATUS : W/LA
HEPATICA  (Anemone hepatica, Liverwort)
  HERB.  Standard Infusion, as needed.
  STATUS : W/A
HERACLEUM  (Cow Parsnip, Yerba del Oso)
  ROOT. Fresh Tincture [1:2] applied topically as nerve irritant/stimulant.
  SEED.  Fresh Seed Tincture [1:2] applied topically to teeth/gums as 
  anesthetic and antimicrobial
  STATUS : W/A
HETEROTHECA (Camphor Weed, Mexican Arnica)
  FLOWERING HERB.  Tincture [Fresh Herb 1:2, Dry Herb, 1:5, 60% alcohol) as
  liniment, topically as antifungal. Standard Infusion as topical application,
  or 2-4 ounces to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
HEUCHERA  (American Alum Root)
  ROOT AND LEAF.  Tincture [Fresh Whole Plant, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 50% alc.,
  10% glycerin] 30-90 drops.  Cold Infusion (root, leaves, or both) 1-3 ounces
  to 4X a day, or 4 ounces in 8 ounces warm water for douche or enema.
  STATUS : W/LA
HUMULUS  (Hops)
  STROBILE.  Tincture [Fresh strobiles, 1:2, Dry strobiles 1:5, 65% alcohol]
  30-90 drops.  Cold Infusion 2-4 ounces, Standard Infusion 3-6 ounces, to 3X
  a day.
  HERB.  Cold or Standard Infusion for topical use, powder for poultice.
  STATUS : W/C
HYDRANGEA  ARBORESCENS (Seven Barks)
  ROOT. Cold Infusion or Strong Decoction, 3-6 ounces, frequently. Tincture,
  [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 1/2 to 1 teaspoon in water, up
  to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
*HYDRASTIS  (Golden Seal)
  ROOT/LEAF. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2], 15-30 drops. Dry Root Tincture, [1:5,
  70% alcohol] 20-50 drops.  Dry Herb Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-75 drops
  all the above to 4X a day.  Dry Root capsules #00, 2-4, to 3X a day.
  Standard Infusion of leaf 1-3 ounces, to 4X a day.
  The root is only partially soluble in water and should not be wasted in tea. 
  STATUS: W/Rare (cultivation has largely failed in recent years, due to plant
  blight and flooding; most of the world's Hydrastis is obtained by poaching
  from isolated old-growth remnants in NE North America.  Most remnant stands
  will have disappeared forever by the time re-cultivation takes up the slack.
  PLEASE use substitutes whenever possible.)
*HYOCYAMUS NIGER  (Henbane)
  FLOWERING TOP.  Tincture [Fresh Herb, 1:2, Dry Herb, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 3-10
  drops to 3X a day.  Standard Infusion topically for pain.
  USE WITH CARE.
  STATUS : W/A
HYPERICUM  (St. Johns Wort) 
  FLOWERING TOPS. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2] 20-30 drops to 3X a day. The dry
  plant is far less active, but a Standard Infusion can be taken, 3-6 ounces.
  STATUS : W/C
HYPTIS  (Desert Lavender)
  FLOWERING HERB.  Standard Infusion, 2-6 ounces as needed.
  STATUS : W/LA
HYSSOPUS  (Hyssop)
  FLOWERING HERB.  Cold Infusion, 2-3 ounces, or topically for bruises.
  STATUS : W/C
ILEX PARAGUAENSIS (Yerba Mate)
  LEAVES.  A simple infusion as needed.
  A CAFFEINE PLANT
  STATUS : C
ILLICIUM  (Star Anise)
  SEEDS. Same as Cardamom. For a tea, Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, ad lib.
  STATUS : C
IMPATIENS  (Jewel Weed, Touch-Me-Not)
  FRESH PLANT. Fresh juice for topical use, Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2], both
  as needed.
  STATUS : W/LA
INULA  (Elecampane)
  ROOT. Tincture [Fresh root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol], 10-30 drops to
  4X a day. Strong Decoction 2-6 ounces, to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/C
IRIS FLORENTINA  and others (Orris Root)
  DRIED ROOT, preferably aged for at least 2 years. 1/2 to 1 teaspoon in warm
  water as suspended tea; the pressed "fingers" for teething infants to gum on.
  Although sometimes a topical allergen, it is not so internally.
  STATUS : C
*IRIS VERSICOLOR, I. MISSOURIENSIS  (Blue Flag)
  RHIZOME.  Tincture [1:5, 80% alcohol], 5-20 drops to 3X a day.
  USE WITH  CARE.
  STATUS : W/C
JATEORHIZA PALMATA  (Columbo, Calumba)
  ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol], 20-30 drops before meals. Cold Infusion,
  1-2 ounces.
  STATUS : U
JATROPHA CINERIA  (J. cardiaca,  Sangre de Drago, Limberbush)
  ROOT. Strong Decoction or Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces, topically applied, or
  as a mouthwash.
  STATUS : W/LA
JEFFERSONIA  (Twin Leaf, Rheumatism Root)
  RHIZOME.  Cold Infusion, 2-6 ounces, to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
JUGLANS CINERIA  (Butternut Bark)
  BARK.  Weak Decoction, 2-4 ounces, to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
JUGLANS MAJOR  (Black Walnut)
  LEAVES. Tincture (Fresh Plant [1:2] Dry Plant [1:5] 50% alcohol), 30-90
  drops to 3X a day.  Standard Infusion 2-4 ounces.
  STATUS : W/C
JUNIPERUS  (Juniper)
  BERRIES. Tincture [1:5, 75% alcohol], 20-40 drops. Standard Infusion, 2-3
  oz., to 3X a day.
  LEAVES: Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, or boiled for inhalation. For short
  term use; may irritate the kidneys in time.
  STATUS : W/semi-C
*KALMIA  (Mountain Laurel)
  LEAVES. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2], 3-10 drops. Dry Plant Tincture [1:5, 50%
  alcohol] 5-20 drops, both to 4X a day.  
  USE WITH CARE.
  STATUS : W/LA
KINO  (Pterocarpus, Gum Kino)
  GUM. Tincture [1:5,65% alcohol,15% glycerin],30 50 drops in water as needed.
  STATUS : U
KRAMERIA  (Rhatany)
  WHOLE PLANT.  Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 10%
  glycerin], 20-50 drops.  Strong Decoction, 1-3 ounces, or used topically.
  STATUS : W/A
LACTUCA  (Wild Lettuce)
  HERB. Standard Infusion as needed. LATEX (Lactucarium), Tincture [1:2, 95%
  alcohol], 1/2 to 1 teaspoon.
  STATUS : W/A
LARREA  (Chaparral, Gobernadora, Creosote Bush)
  LEAFING BRANCHES. Tincture [1:5, 75% alcohol], 20-60 drops.
  Capsules,#00, 2-4 a day.
  Strong Decoction for topical use.
  STATUS : W/A
LAVANDULA  (Lavender)
  FLOWERS.  Standard Infusion, 2-3 ounces to 4X a day.
  ESSENTIAL OIL. 5-10  drops in capsule, with food. 
  STATUS : W/C
LEDUM   (Labrador Tea)
  LEAVES. Standard Infusion for tea. Fresh Leaf Tincture [1:2] is diluted for
  topical use.
  STATUS : W/A
*LEONURUS CARDIACA  (Motherwort)
  FLOWERING HERB. Tincture [Fresh Plant 1:2, Recent Dry Plant, 1:5, 60% alc.]
  30-60 drops, to 4X a day.  Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces.
  STATUS : W/C
*LEPTANDRA  (Veronicastrum, Culver's Root)
  ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol], 10-30 drops,to 3X a day. An herb better
  used in formulas than by itself.  
  USE WITH CARE.
  STATUS : W/Rare
LESPEDEZA CAPITATA (Lespedeza)
  FLOWERING HERB. Dry Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol], 30-60 drops to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
LEUCANTHEMUM (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Oxe-Eye Daisy)
  FLOWERING HERB.  Standard Infusion, 4-8 ounces to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
LEUCOPHYLLUM  (Cenizo, Purple Sage, Texas Ranger)
  FLOWERING HERB.  Standard Infusion, 2-6 ounces
  STATUS : W/LA
LIATRIS  (Button Snakeroot, Cachana, Gayfeather)
  ROOT.  Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces frequently.
  STATUS : W/A
LIGUSTICUM PORTERI  (Osha, Chuchupate, Mountain Lovage)
  ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 70% alcohol], 20-60 drops up
  to 5X a day.  Cold Infusion, 2-6 ounces, as needed.
  STATUS : W/LA
LIGUSTRUM  (Privet)
  BARK AND LEAVES.  Strong Decoction, as needed.
  STATUS : W/A
*LILIUM TIGRINUM  (Tiger Lily)
  WHOLE BLOOMING PLANT. Tincture [Fresh plant,1:2], 5-20 drops, up to 3X a day
  USE IN MODERATION.
  STATUS : U
LINARIA  (Toadflax, Butter-and-Eggs)
  FLOWERING HERB. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol], 20-40 drops. Standard Infusion,
  2-4 ounces.  Capsules, #00, 1-2, all to 3X a day.
  For short term use in full doses, long term use in low dosage formula format
  STATUS : W/A
LINUM  (Flaxseed)
  SEEDS. Whole seeds, 1-2 teaspoons in cup of warm water, Ground seeds for a
  poultice. Only use freshly ground whole seeds internally; even several days
  is long enough to allow oxidative degradation, creating irritating lipids.
  STATUS : C
LIQUIDAMBER  (Sweet Gum Tree)
  BALSAM. Tincture [1:5, 95% alcohol], 10-30 drops as needed. Strong Decoction
  of Bark is serviceable as well.
  STATUS : W/LA
LOBELIA CARDINALIS  (Cardinal Flower)
  WHOLE PLANT.  Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2], 10-40 drops up to 5X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
LOBELIA INFLATA  (Lobelia, Indian Tobacco)
  FLOWERING PLANT. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:4] 5-20 drops up to 4X a day.
  Dry Plant Tincture (inferior) is best as an Acetum Tincture [Dry Herb 1:5 in
  vinegar] 10-20 drops, or used for local application.
  SEED. Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol), 3-10 drops.
  Herb tea is especially nauseating, fresh herb or seed preps only slightly.
  STATUS : W/LA/C
LOMATIUM DISSECTUM  (Leptotaenia,  Biscuit Root)
  ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 70% alcohol], 10-30 drops up
  to 4X a day.  Cold Infusion, 2-3 ounces also to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
*LOPHOPHORA  (Peyote, Mescal Buttons)
  FRESH PLANT. Tincture [1:2], 20-40 drops to 4X a day.
  ILLEGAL TO POSSESS AT PRESENT.
  STATUS : W/Rare
LYCIUM PALLIDUM (Wolf Berry)
  HERB. Fresh Plant Tincture, [1:2], 15-40 drops. Standard Infusion, 2-3 ounces
  both up to 4X a day.
  Best for short-term use.
  STATUS : W/LA 
LYCOPUS  (Bugleweed, Water Horehound)
  HERB. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2] 15-40 drops, to 3X a day. Standard Infusion
  of recent plant, 2-3 ounces, also to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/A 
LYSICHITON AMERICANUM  (Western Skunk Cabbage)
  SAME as Dracontium.
  STATUS : W/A 
LYTHRUM (Loose-Strife) 
  FLOWERING PLANT. A Cold Infusion (astringent and slimy), Standard Infusion
  (astringent) or Decoction (slimy) as needed, for pharynx, esophageal and
  gastric irritation or as a douche.
  STATUS : W/A
MAHONIA (Oregon Grape, Algerita)
  SAME as Berberis.
  STATUS : W/A 
MALVA NEGLECTA  (Mallow, Malvas, Cheeseplant)
  HERB.  Standard Infusion, 2-6 ounces, as needed.
  STATUS : W/A 
MARRUBIUM  (Horehound)
  FLOWERING HERB. Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry
  Plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol], 30-90 drops, both to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
MATRICARIA  (Chamomile, Manzanilla)
  FLOWERS. Standard or Cold Infusion, 2-6 ounces as needed.
  STATUS : W/C
MATRICARIA MATRICARIOIDES (M. suaveolens, Pineapple Weed)
  FLOWERS. Standard or Cold Infusion, 2-6 ounces as needed.
  STATUS : W/A
MEDICAGO SATIVA  (Alfalfa)
  FLOWERING PLANT.  Standard Infusion as needed.
  STATUS : W/C
*MELILOTUS  (Sweet Clover)
  FLOWERING HERB.  Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces; the tea for topical use.
  Not for extended consumption as a tea, due to its coumarin content.
  STATUS : W/A
MELISSA OFFICINALIS  (Lemon Balm)
  FLOWERING HERB.  Standard Infusion as needed.
  STATUS : W/C
MENISPERMUM  (Yellow Parilla, Moonseed)
  ROOT.  Tincture [1:5, 70% alcohol], 10-40 drops, or 5-10 drops as a bitter
  tonic, taken just before meals.
  STATUS : W/LA
MENTHA AQUATICA (Water Mint)
  Same uses as Mentha spicata
*MENTHA ARVENSIS  (Brook Mint, Poleo)
  HERB IN FLOWER.  Standard Infusion as needed. Although less than found in
  Hedeoma or Mentha pulegium, the pulegone content in this plant makes it
  inappropriate in pregnancy.
  STATUS : W/C
MENTHA PIPERITA  (Peppermint)
  HERB.  Corld or Standard Infusion as needed.
  ESSENTIAL OIL. 10-20 drops in capsules (in a binder), to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/C
*MENTHA PULEGIUM  (European Pennyroyal)
  BASAL LEAVES and FLOWERING STALKS.  Same as Hedeoma.
  STATUS : W/C
MENTHA SPICATA  (Spearmint, Yerba Buena)
  HERB. Standard Infusion, or any way you want, as needed.
  ESSENTIAL OIL.  10-20 drops in capsules (in a binder), to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/C
MENYANTHES  (Buckbean, Bogbean)
  WHOLE PLANT.  Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry Plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol],
  10-30 drops, to 3X a day.  Cold Infusion, 1-2 ounces, also to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
MIRABILIS MULTIFLORUM  (Wild Four-O'Clock, Maravilla)
  ROOT. Fresh Root Tincture [1:2], 30-60 drops. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces,
  either form taken 1/2 hour before meals.
  STATUS : W/LA
MITCHELLA REPENS  (Squaw Vine)
  HERB. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry Plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol],1/2 to 1
  teaspoon to 3X a day.  Standard Infusion, 2-8 ounces to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
MONARDA  (Bee Balm, Oswego Tea, Wild Bergamot, Wild Oregano)
  FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion, 1-4 ounces, to 3X a day or as gargle.
  STATUS : W/C
MYRICA  (Bayberry)
  BARK and ROOTBARK. Tincture [Fresh Bark, 1:2, Dry Bark, 1:5, 60% alcohol]
  20-60 drops.  Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces, both to 3X a day.  The diluted
  tincture or the infusion for topical use or as a gargle.
  STATUS : W/A
MYRISTICA  (Nutmeg, Mace)
  SEED.  Tincture [1:5, 75% alcohol] 5-10 drops.
  STATUS : C
NEPETA CATARIA  (Catnip)
  FLOWERING HERB. Tincture [Fresh Herb 1:2, Recent Dry Herb 1:5, 50% alc.],
  1/4 to 1 teaspoon  Standard Infusion, 2-6 ounces, all to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/C
NICOTIANA  (Tobacco)
  HERB.  Standard Infusion topically.
  STATUS : W/C
*NUPHAR  (Yellow Pond Lily)
  ROOT/RHIZOME. Fresh Root Tincture, [1:2], 10-20 drops. Weak Decoction  2-4
  ounces, both to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
NYMPHAEA ODORATA  (White Pond Lily)
  DRIED RHIZOME. Strong Decoction, 1-2 ounces to 4X a day (internally) or an
  appropriate volume as a douche.
  STATUS : W/LA
OENOTHERA  (Evening Primrose)
  FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces. The seeds contain high levels
  of GLA and tryptophane.
  STATUS : W/C
OLEA EUROPAEA (Olive)
  LEAVES.  Standard Infusion, 1-3 ounces, to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/C
*OPLOPANAX HORRIDUM   (Echinopanax,  Devil's Club)
  ROOT/ROOTBARK. Tincture [Fresh Root 1:2, Dry Rootbark, 1:5, 60% alc.] 10-40
  drops.  Cold Infusion, 1-3 ounces, all forms to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/A 
OPUNTIA  (Prickly Pear)
  FRESH JUICE, 2-4 ounces to 2X a day. 
  DRIED FLOWERS, two-three as an infusion (strain VERY well).
  STATUS : W/A 
OROBANCHE and CONOPHOLIS  (Broomrape)
  WHOLE PLANT.  Standard Infusion 2-4 ounces; applied topically as needed.
  STATUS : W/LA 
OSMORHIZA OCCIDENTALIS  (Sweet Root, Western Sweet Cicely)
  ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 65% alcohol] 45-60 drops to 
  3X  a day.  Strong Decoction, 2-3 ounces to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA 
OXYDENDRON  (Sourwood)
  LEAVES.  Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA 
*PAEONIA  (Peony)
  ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 10-25 drops up
  to  4X a day.  Cold Infusion, 1-2 ounces. Capsules, #00, 2-3 at a time.
  STATUS : W/C
*PANAX GINSENG (Asian Ginseng)
  ROOT.  Tincture [1:5, 70% alcohol]. 
  KIRIN (dark red Chinese cured root) 5-20 drops.  
  SHIU-CHIU (light red Chinese cured) 10-30 drops. 
  KOREAN RED, 5-15 drops.
  WHITE (Chinese or Korean uncured) 20-40 drops, all to 3X a day. 
  Capsules, "Red Ginseng" (Kirin or Korean Red) to 4X  a day. "White", to 6 a
  day. Chewing root pieces is more reliable than the unidentifiable substances
  found in capsules.  With the cost of Ginseng, tinctures are the most
  bioavailable form.
  STATUS : C 
*PANAX QUINQUEFOLIUM  (American Ginseng)
  ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 70% alcohol].
  WILD ROOTS (morally objectionable), 5-10 drops.
  WOODSGROWN ROOTS. 10-20 drops.
  CULTIVATED ROOTS. 20-40 drops.
  CULTIVATED RED ROOTS (Michigan and Wisconsin cured roots), 15-30 drops.
      Any other "American Red Ginseng" is a blatant fake. 
  LEAVES. 30-60 drops, Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces.  All above forms to 3X a day
  STATUS : W/RARE!/C 
PARIETARIA  (Pellitory-of-the-Wall)
  FLOWERING HERB.  Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol]
  60-90 drops, both to 5X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
PARMELIA (Alpine Lichen)
  LICHEN.  Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-60 drops to 4X a day.  Moisten the
  herb with a little alcohol and make a Strong Decoction, 2-6 ounces, to 3X a
  day, or use the tea for topical application.
  STATUS : W/LA
PARTHENIUM INTEGRIFOLIUM  (Prairie Dock)
  LEAVES. Standard Infusion, 2-3 ounces twice a day
  ROOT.  Cold Infusion, 2-3 ounces to 5X a day.
  NOTE: The big grey roots have been used as fraudulent Echinacea angustifolia
  for nearly a century...in fact the largest broker of wildcrafted US herbs in
  the world is STILL perpetuating this fraud, calling it "Missouri Snakeroot"
  (the common name applied normally to E. purpurea).  The roots of P.
  integrifolium somehow get mixed into cut/sifted and powdered Echinacea (it 
  all looks grey) on the world's market...from the folks who STILL adulterate
  Skullcap by mixing in lots of Germander.
  STATUS : W/LA
PASSIFLORA  (Passion Flower)
  WHOLE HERB. Tincture [Fresh Plant 1:2, Dry Herb, 1:5, 50% alcohol] .5 to
  1.5 teapoon.  Fluidextract [1:1, 45% alcohol], 30-60 drops. Standard Infusion
  of recent herb, 2-6 ounces, all forms to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/C 
PAULLINIA  (Guarana)
  SEED. Capsule, #00,  2-4. Fluidextract [1:1,50% alcohol,10% glycerin], 20-60
  drops. Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol], 1/4 to 1 teaspoon.
  STATUS : W/C 
*PEGANUM HARMALA  (Syrian Rue)
  SEEDS and ROOT.  Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 10-30 drops, to 3X a day.
  LEAVES.  Standard Infusion for topical use.
  STATUS : W/A 
PEDICULARIS  (Betony, Lousewort, Elephant Head, Parrot's Beak, Indian Warrior)
  HERB in FLOWER. Standard Infusion, 4-8 ounces.  Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2,
  Dry Plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 1-2 teaspoons, all to 3X a day.
  A semi-parasitic genus, don't use Pedicularis growing on Senecio or toxic
  legumes.
  STATUS : W/A 
PETASITES  (Western Coltsfoot)
  HERB.  Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, to 4X a day.  Fresh Tincture [1:2],
  30-60 drops.
  ROOT. Strong Decoction, 2-3 ounces to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
*PETROSELINUM  (Parsley)
  ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol, 30-60 drops in warm water, to 3X a day.
  STATUS : C 
*PHYTOLACCA (Poke)
  ROOT and BERRIES. Fresh Tincture, (Root or Berries), [1:2], 2-10 drops.
  Dry Root Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 5-15 drops.
  USE WITH CARE.
  STATUS : W/A 
PICRAENA (Picrasma, Quassia)
  WOOD.  Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-60 drops,
  to 3X a day. Cold Infusion, 4-8 ounces, as a retained enema, once a week for
  4-6 weeks for pinworms/threadworms.
  STATUS : W/A 
*PILOCARPUS  (Jaborandi)
  LEAVES.  Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 15-30 drops in warm water.  Standard
  Infusion, 2-3 ounces as a hair rinse.
  STATUS : U 
PIMENTA  (Allspice)
  SEED.  The tea as a simple infusion.
  STATUS : W/C
PINUS  (Pine)
  NEEDLES.  Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, to 3X a day.
  PITCH. Pea-sized piece hewed and swallowed as expectorant.
  STATUS : W/A 
PIPER ANGUSTIFOLIA  (Matico)
  LEAVES. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol], 1/2 to 1 teaspoon in cup of warm water,
  to 4X a day.
  STATUS : U 
PIPER METHYSTICUM  (Kava Kava, Ava)
  ROOT.  Tincture [Fresh Root 1:2, Recent Dry Root 1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-90
  drops to 4X a day.   Fluidextract [1:1, 55% alcohol] 10-30 drops.  Cold
  Infusion, 2-6 oz.  all to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA/C
PIPER NIGRUM  (Black Pepper)
  PEPPERCORNS.  Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol] 5-15 drops.
  STATUS : C
PISCIDIA  (Jamaica Dogwood, Jabin)
  TREE and ROOT BARK. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 10-90 drops.  
  USE WITH CARE.  Response is highly individual, so start with a low dose.
  STATUS : W/LA 
PLANTAGO MAJOR  (Plantain)
  FRESH LEAF.  Fresh or frozen juice, 1-2 tablespoons to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/A 
PLANTAGO OVATA  (Psyllium Seed)
  SEED.  Whole seeds, 2-3 tablespoons in 12 ounces warm water or fruit juice.
  HUSKS. 1-2 tablespoons in same, both to 3X a day, usually only once.
  STATUS : C 
PLUCHEA CAMPHORATA  (P. purpurascens, Marsh Fleabane, Camphorweed)
  FLOWERING TOPS. Standard Infusion 2-4 ounces. Brewed with isotonic water for
  use as eyewash.  Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-90 drops.
  STATUS : W/LA 
*PODOPHYLLUM.  (American Mandrake)
  ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 95% alcohol] 10-20 drops. Use carefully, and never with
  overt disease or in physical depression.
  STATUS : W/LA 
*POLYGALA  SENEGA (Senega Snakeroot, Milkwort)
  ROOT and HERB. Tincture [Fresh Plant 1:2, Dry Root 1:5, 65% alcohol], 10-45
  drops, to 4X a day. Small frequent doses are best.
  STATUS : W/LA 
POLYGONATUM (Solomon's Seal)
  ROOT.  Strong Decoction 1-4 ounces to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA 
POLYGONUM AVICULARE  (Knotgrass)
  DRIED HERB.  Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces as needed
  STATUS : W/unintentionally C
POLYGONUM BISTORTA (Bistort Root)
  ROOT. Strong Decoction 1-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol, 10% glycerin]
  30-90 drops, both to 3X a day. The decoction and the diluted tincture as
  needed for topical use, mouthwash or gargle.
  STATUS : W/A 
POLYGONUM HYDROPIPER  (Smartweed, Water Pepper)
  HERB. Standard Infusion 2-4 ounces as needed.
  STATUS : W/A 
*POLYMNIA UVEDALIA  (Bearsfoot, Leafcup)
  STEM and ROOT. Tincture [Fresh plant 1:2, Dry Root 1:5, 75% alcohol] 10-50
  drops, to 3X a day.  Small, frequent doses are preferable.
  STATUS : W/LA 
POLYPODIUM GLYCYRRHIZA  (Licorice Fern)
  ROOT/RHIZOME.  Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces, to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
POPULUS CANDICANS and BALSAMIFERA  (Balsam Poplar, Balm of Gilead)
  EARLY SPRING LEAF BUDS. Tincture [Fresh, 1:2, Dry, 1:5, 75% alcohol] 15-30
  drops.  Infused oil [1 part buds to 10 parts oil] for topical use.
  STATUS : W/A
POPULUS TREMULIODES  (Aspen)
  BARK. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces, up to 4X a day when condition is acute.
  STATUS : W/A
POTENTILLA  (Cinquefoil, Silverweed)
  HERB. Any infusion as needed.
  STATUS : W/A
PRIMULA (Primrose, Cowslip)
  ROOT. Strong Decoction (more energetic but can gag in excess), Cold Infusion
  (less active but better for more frequent expectorant use), either format 
  1-2 ounces to 5X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
PRINOS  (Ilex verticillatus, Black Alder)
  RECENT BARK and BERRIES. Strong Decoction, 3-4 ounces to 3X a day. Tincture
  [1:5, 65% alcohol] 10-30 drops.
  STATUS : W/LA
PROPOLIS  (Hive scrapings, gathered from trees)
  Tincture [1:5, 95% alcohol] 5-15 drops in a little honey for internal use,
  mixed with water or oil for external use.
  THOSE WITH BEE ALLERGIES MAY NOT BE ABLE TO USE PROPOLIS.
  STATUS : C (in the broad sense)
PRUNELLA  (Self Heal, Heal All)
  FRESH PLANT.  Poultice as needed.  Fresh Plant Tincture, [1:2], as needed.
  STATUS : W/A
PRUNUS  (Wild Cherry, Choke Cherry)
  SUMMER or FALL BARK.  Cold Infusion 2-6 ounces, to 3X a day. Tincture [1:5,
  60% alcohol, 10% glycerin] 30-90 drops, to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
PTELEA  (Wafer Ash, Hop Tree)
  BARK, SEEDS and LEAVES.  Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol] 10-30 drops.  Strong
  Decoction (Seeds and Bark), 1-3 ounces, both up to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
*PTYCHOPETALUM  (Liriosma, Muirapuama, Potency Wood, Raiz del Macho)
  BARK, RESINOUS BARK. Tincture [1:5, 70% alcohol] 30-60 drops. Cold Infusion,
  3-4 ounces, preferably in morning.
  STATUS : U
PULMONARIA  (Lungwort)
  FLOWERING HERB.  Standard Infusion as needed.
  STATUS : W/A
PYGEUM AFRICANUM  (Prunus africana)
  BARK. 2-6 grams a day, taken in capsules or mixed with enough honey to make
  into "pills" and eaten.  The whole bark is hard to find in commerce, the
  European pharmaceutical preparations are easy to find in American health
  food stores...a far more expensive format...and GUARANTEED to "taint" it for
  urologists.
  STATUS : U
PYROLA  (Shinleaf)
  Same as Chimaphila
  STATUS : W/LA
QUERCUS  (Oak)
  Same as Geranium
  STATUS : W/A
RHAMNUS CALIFORNICA  (California Buckthorn, Coffeeberry)
  AGED BARK.  Cold Infusion 2-6 ounces.  Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol], 1-2
  teaspoons.  Fluidextract, [1:1, 50% alcohol] 1/2 to 1 teaspoon.
  STATUS : W/LA
*RHAMNUS CATHARTICA  (Buckthorn)
  BERRIES.  Fresh Tincture [1:2], 3-20 drops.  DRY crushed berries, 1-2
  teaspoons steeped in a cup of water.  This Rhamnus has no advantages over
  the others, and is the least predictable in effect, ranging from ineffective
  to painful catharsis.
  STATUS : W/LA
*RHAMNUS FRANGULA  (Alder Buckthorn)
  See Frangula
RHAMNUS PURSHIANA (Cascara Sagrada)
  AGED BARK.  Same as Rhamnus californica
  STATUS : W/C
RHEUM  (Rhubarb, Chinese or Turkey Rhubarb)
  ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol, 10% glycerin] 15-30 drops, to 4X a day.  
  Too much too frequently can induce rebound constipation.
  STATUS : W/C
RHUS AROMATICA  (Sweet Sumach)
  BARK,ROOTBARK. Cold Infusion, 1-2 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol,10%
  glycerin] 20-40 drops, both to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
RHUS GLABRA (Smooth Sumach)
  LEAVES, FRUIT. Same as previous. Powdered leaves for topical use.
  STATUS : W/A
ROSA (Rose Buds, Rose Petals)
  FLOWERS. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces.  Make w/isotonic water for eyes.
  STATUS : W/C
ROSMARINUS  (Rosemary)
  LEAVES.  Standard Infusion 2-4 ounces, to 14X a day or for a topical wash.
  ESSENTIAL OIL.  Capsule, 3-6 drops in a binder, with water.
  STATUS : W/C
RUBIA TINCTORIUM (Madder)
  ROOT. 1-2 grams to 4 X a day...traditionally taken in doses high enough for
  the root's pigment to color the urine red...which can be disconcerting when
  using it to help pass or prevent kidney stones.  Check for blood vs pigment
  with multi-stix, or use one of the many more reliable and less problematic
  botanicals.
  STATUS : W/C
RUBUS IDAEUS  (Raspberry)
  LEAVES.  Infusion as needed.
  STATUS : W/C
RUBUS VILLOSUS  (Blackberry)
  ROOT BARK.  Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces, to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/C
RUMEX CRISPUS  (Yellow Dock)
  ROOT.  Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 50% alcohol], 30-75 drops,
  to 3X a day.  Capsules, #00, 1-2 to 2X a day.  Use with moderation in
  pregnancy.  In all cases it works best in sub-laxative doses.
  STATUS : W/C
RUMEX HYMENOSEPALUS  (Cainagre, Red Dock)
  ROOT. Strong Decoction or powder for external use, 1-2 ounces for mouth-wash
  LEAVES.  Fresh Tincture [1:2] for topical anti-inflammatory use.
  STATUS : W/LA
RUSCUS ACULEATUS  (Butcher's Broom)
  ROOT/RHIZOME.  Fresh Tincture [1:2] 30-60 drops, 3X a day. Pharmaceutical
  preps (European) are easier to get than the crude drug...and more reliable
  for chronic venous congestion.
  STATUS : W/LA/C
*RUTA GRAVEOLENS  (Rue, Ruda)
  HERB.  Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol] 5-20 drops. A poultice with the powdered leaves for a counterirritant poultice.
  STATUS : W/C
SALIX  (Willow)
  BARK.  Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
SALVIA  (Sage)
  FLOWERING HERB. Tincture [Fresh, 1:2, Dry, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-60 drops, in hot water (diaphoretic) or cold water (tonic).Cold Infusion or Strong
  Decoction 2-4 ounces.
  STATUS : W/C
SAMBUCUS  (Elder)
  FLOWERS, LEAVES.   Flowers, Standard Infusion 2-4 ounces.  Leaves, Cold
  Infusion 1-2 ounces, both to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/C
*SANGUINARIA  (Bloodroot)
  ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 10-15 drops.  Dilute with 2X water for
  tinea application.
  STATUS : W/LA
SANICULA  MARILANDICA (Black Sanicle, Sanicle)
  ROOT. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces to 4X a day. Dry Root Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol], 30-90 drops to 4X a day.  Externally, the decoction makes the best
  wash.
  STATUS : W/LA
SANTALUM (Santal, White Sandalwood)
  WOOD, OIL. Wood Tincture [1:5, 80% alcohol] 25-50 drops. The oil in capsule
  5-10 drops, with food, to 2X a day.
  STATUS : U
SAPINDUS  SAPONARIA  (Soapberry)
  LEAVES and STEMS. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces to 3X a day.
  BERRIES.Crushed or pureed for soap.
  STATUS : W/LA
SAPONARIA  (Soapwort, Bouncing Bet)
  WHOLE PLANT. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces to 4X a day. Dry Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol], 30-90 drops to 4X a day. Can be nauseating for a few people.
  STATUS : W/C
SASSAFRAS
  BARK OF ROOT.  Strong Decoction, as needed.
  LEAVES.  Standard Infusion,  as needed.
  ESSENTIAL OIL. Diluted with alcohol and applied to fresh Poison Ivy contact.
  STATUS : W/C
SATUREJA DOUGLASII  (California Yerba Buena)
  LEAVES.  The tea as needed.
  STATUS : W/LA
*SCOPARIUS  (Cytisus scoparius, Broom Tops)
  FLOWERING BRANCHES.  Standard Infusion 1-2 ounces to 3X a day. Tincture [1:5,
  50% alcohol] 20-40 drops to 4X a day.
  USE WITH CARE, and NOT with prescription medications.
  STATUS : W/A
SCROPHULARIA  (Figwort)
  HERB.  Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
SCUTELLARIA  (Skullcap)
  HERB. Tincture  [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Recent Dry Plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 20-60 drops.  Standard Infusion of recent herb, 2-6 ounces, all to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/C
*SENECIO AUREUS  (Life Root, Squaw Weed)
   HERB. Standard Infusion, 1-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 50% alc.], 30-90 drops.
  STATUS : W/LA
*SENNA (Cassia angustifolia, Egyptian Senna, etc. )
  LEAVES.  Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces.
  PODS. 10-20, steeped for an hour in a cup of water. Take both in evening.
  See also Cassia marilandica.
  STATUS : W/C
SERENOA  (Saw Palmetto, Sabal)
  BERRIES.  Tincture [Fresh Berry, 1:2, Dry Berry, 1:5, 80% alcohol] 30-90 drops.  Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, all forms to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
SILYBUM MARIANUM  (Milk Thistle)
  SEEDS.  Capsules, #00, 2 at a time, to 3X a day.  Fluidextract [1:1, 60% alcohol],  20-40 drops to 5X a day. Strong Tincture [1:3, 70% alcohol], 1/2 to 1 teaspoon, to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/C
SIMMONDSIA  (Jojoba, Goatnut)
  LEAVES.  Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces as needed.
  OIL. Applied topically or mixed with Castor Oil.
  STATUS : W/C
SINAPIS  (Mustard)
  SEED. PLASTER: mix 1 part powdered seed and one part flour, add enough water to form a spreadable paste, place between two layers of gauze and apply to desired area until skin turns pink...NOT RED (by then it will blister).  
  Remove plaster and wash skin.
  STATUS : C
SMILACINA RACEMOSA  (False Solomon's Seal)
  ROOT. Steep a teaspoon of ground root in cup of hot water. Mix with some hot water for a poultice.  The fresh root can be used as a poultice.
  STATUS : W/A
SMILAX  (Sarsaparilla)
  ROOT/RHIZOME. Cold Infusion or Strong Decoction, 1-4 ounces, to 3X a day.
  Tincture [Fresh Root,1:2, Dry Root,1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-90 drops to 3X a day
  STATUS : W/A
SOLANUM CAROLINENSE (Horse Nettle, Bull Nettle)
  ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 10-40 drops, for occasional use.
  STATUS : W/A
*SOLANUM  DULCAMARA   (Bittersweet Twigs)
  STEMS.  Tincture [Fresh Stems 1:2, Dry Stems, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 10-20 drops.
  This is best used in formulas.
  USE WITH MODERATION.
  STATUS : W/A  
SOLIDAGO (Goldenrod)
  HERB.  Standard Infusion, 1-3 ounces everey four hours.
  STATUS : W/A
SPHAERALCEA  (Scarlet Globemallow, Yerba de la Negrita)
  FLOWERING HERB.  Standard Infusion as needed. Powdered herb, mixed with hot water for poultice.  The tea is a widely used hair rinse.
  STATUS : W/LA
*SPIGELIA (Pink Root)
  ROOT.  Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces morning and evening for three or four days, followed by Senna Pods or a moderate saline purgative.
  STATUS : W/LA (almost W/Rare)
STACHYS  (Hedge Nettle, Woundwort)
  FLOWERING HERB.  Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry Plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol], 1/2 to 1 teaspoon, to 4X a day.  Standard Infusion, as needed, and topically as a poultice.
  STATUS : W/A
STELLARIA MEDIA (Chickweed)
  HERB.  Fresh plant juice or bruised whole plant as a poultice.  Tincture [Fresh Herb, 1:2, Recent Dry Herb 1:5, 50% alcohol] as needed.
  STATUS : W/A
STICTA  (Lobaria pulmonaria, Lungwort Moss)
  LICHEN.  Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol], 20-30 drops, to 4X a day. Standard or Cold Infusion, 1-4 ounces, to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
STILLINGIA SYLVATICA  (Queen's Root)
  ROOT.  Tincture [Fresh root,1:2, Recent Dry Root, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 10-30 drops, preferably in small frequent doses.
  STATUS : W/LA
SUMBUL  (Ferula sumbul, Musk Root, Jatamansi)
  ROOT.  Tincture [1:5, 95% alcohol] 5-20 drops. Cold Infusion, 1-4 oz., to 3X a day
  STATUS : U
SWERTIA RADIATA  (Green Gentian, Cebadilla, American Columbo)
  ROOT.  Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 5-20 drops, taken just before meals.
  STATUS : W/LA
SYMPHYTUM  (Comfrey)
  LEAF and ROOT. Leaf, Standard Infusion 2-6 ounces. Root, Cold Infusion, 1-4 ounces, both to 3X a day,for short term use. Constant use of some cultivated strains can irritate or damage the liver.
  STATUS : C
TABEBUIA  (Lapacho, Pau D'Arco, Ipe Roxo, Amapa)
  TREE BARK.  Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounce to 3X a day.  Fluidextract [1:1, 50%
  alc.]  15-30 drops to 5X a day.Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 1/2 to 1 teaspoon
  to 4X a day
  STATUS : U
*TANACETUM  (Tansy)
  FLOWERING HERB.  Standard Infusion 1-4 ounce.  
  For short term use only; some of the chemical races can be moderately toxic.
  STATUS : W/C
TARAXACUM  (Dandelion)
  ROOT or LEAF.  Root Fluidextract [1:1, 45% alcohol] 30-60 drops up to 4X a day.  Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2] 1/2 to 1 teaspoon.  Strong Decoction, 2-4
  ounces, to 4X a day.  Leaf as Standard Infusion, 3-6 ounces as needed.
  STATUS : W/C
TECOMA STANS  (Tronadora, Trumpet Flower)
  WHOLE PLANT. Standard Infusion, 3-4 ounces.  Capsules, #00, 6-10 a day. The Rootbark and stem is used the same as its relative Tabebuia.
  STATUS : W/LA
THALICTRUM (Meadow Rue, Ruda de la Sierra)
  HERB.  Standard Infusion 2-3 ounces.
  STATUS : W/A
THELESPERMA (Cota, Navajo Tea)
  FLOWERING HERB. A simple tea, as needed.
  STATUS : W/A
*THUJA  (Arbor Vitae, Flat, Red or Yellow Cedar)
  HERB. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2] for topical use; 5-15 drops in water, to 4X a  day.  Cold Infusion, 2-3 ounces, to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
THYMUS  (Thyme)
  HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, to 4X a day, or topically as needed.
  ESSENTIAL OIL. Diluted w/2 parts vegetable oil as a topical antimicrobial.
  STATUS : W/C
*TRIBULUS  (Puncture Vine, Goat's Head)
  HERB and SEEDS. 1/2 to 1 teaspoon of the powdered plant in tea, to 2X a day.
  Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-40 drops, 2X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE (Red Clover)
  FLOWERING TOP. Standard Infusion or Strong Decoction, 4-6 ounces to 3X a day
  STATUS : W/C
TRILLIUM (Beth Root)
  WHOLE PLANT.  Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2] 15-25 drops to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA to W/Rare
*TURNERA DIFFUSA  (Damiana)
  FLOWERING HERB.  Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2] 20-30 drops.  Standard Infusion
  2-4 ounces. Dry Plant Tincture (inferior) [1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-60 drops,
  all to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
TUSSILAGO (Coltsfoot)
  HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-6 ounces, sipped slowly. Unlike its antispasmodic
  relative Petasites, which can irritate the liver when used excessively, this
  is  simple and safe cough therapy.
  STATUS : W/A
ULMUS FULVA /RUBRA(Slippery Elm)
  BARK. Cold Infusion of bark or shredded pieces, as needed. The powdered bark
  is used for making poultices.
  STATUS : W/LA
UMBELLULARIA  (California Bay, Pepperwood, Oregon Myrtle)
  LEAF.  Tincture [Fresh Leaf, 1:2, Recent Dry Leaf, 1:5, 65% alcohol] 10-20
  drops to 3X a day, or inhaled from a saturated cotton ball.
  STATUS : W/LA
*UNCARIA  TOMENTOSA  (U�a de Gato, "Cat's Claw")
  ROOT and VINE.  5-20 grams a day in capsules, suspension, or the equivalent
  solid or "lyophilized" extract (i.e. 1-4 grams of a 5:1 solid extract, etc.)
  STATUS : W/Rare (it's already being radically overharvested in the wild) /C
  (Peruvian cultivated root and herb is already on the market)
URTICA  (Nettles)
  WHOLE HERB.  Cold or Standard infusion, as needed.
  STATUS : W/C
USNEA  (Hair Moss, Old Man's Beard)
  HERB. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-60 drops to 4X a day. Moisten the herb
  with a little alcohol and make a Strong Decoction, 2-6 ounces, to 3X a day, or use the tea for topical application.
  STATUS : W/A
*USTILAGO  (Corn Smut)
  FUNGUS.  Fresh Fungus Tincture [1:5] 10-40 drops to 3X a day.
  USE WITH CARE.
  STATUS : W/LA
VACCINIUM  (Blueberry, Huckleberry, Bilberry, Whortleberry, etc.)
  LEAVES.  Standard Infusion of recent herb, 3-4 ounces, to 3X a day.
  STATUS : W/C
VALERIANA  (Valerian)
  PLANT. Tincture [Fresh Whole Plant 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 70% alcohol], 30-90 drops, to 3X a day.  Capsules (root), #00, 2-3. Constant use of the dry root can induce mental agitation.
  STATUS : W/C
*VERATRUM  (Green, False or American Hellebore)
  ROOT.  Tincture [1:10, 95% alcohol] 3-10 drops to 3X a day.
  DANGEROUS IN MODERATE, POISONOUS IN LARGER AMOUNTS.
  STATUS : W/A
VERBASCUM  (Mullein)
  LEAVES. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces.
  FLOWERS.Tincture [Fresh Flowers,1:2,Dry Flowers,1:5,60% alcohol] 30-90 drops
  ROOT. Strong Decoction, 2-3 ounces.  All forms to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
VERBENA (Blue Vervain)
  FLOWERING HERB.  Standard Infusion, 2-5 ounces, to 3X a day. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-90 drops, to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
VIBURNUM (V. opulus, V. prunifolium, Cramp Bark, Black Haw)
  ROOTBARK and BARK. Cold Infusion or Strong Decoction, 3-4 ounces to 4X a day.
  Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-90 drops to 4X a day.
  STATUS : W/LA
*VINCA MAJOR, V. MINOR(Periwinkle)
  HERB. Tincture [Fresh Herb 1:2, Dry Herb, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 20-40 drops, to 2X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
VIOLA ODORATA  (Violet)
  HERB. Standard Infusion 2-5 ounces to 3X a day. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2]
  1-2 teaspoons to 2X a day.
  STATUS : W/C
*VISCUM ALBUM (European Mistletoe)
  HERB. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 15-30 drops. Standard infusion, 2-3 ounces both to 3X a day.  Use in moderation.
  STATUS : U
*VITEX AGNUS-CASTUS  (Chaste Tree Berries, Monk Peppers)
  SEEDS.  Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol] 30-60 drops.  Ground Berries, 1/2 to 1 tspn. in tea, both once in the morning. As it strengthens the progesterone phase of the estrus cycle, it usually works best the two weeks before menses
  STATUS : W/LA/C
XANTHIUM  (Cocklebur)
  PODS. 2-3 pods as infusion.
  HERB. Strong Infusion 2-3 ounces, to 2X a day.
  STATUS : W/A
XANTHOXYLUM (Prickly Ash)
  BARK/BERRIES. Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol] 10-30 drops, before meals.
  STATUS : W/LA
YUCCA (Amole, Spanish Bayonet)
  ROOT.  Capsules, #00, 2-3 , morning and evenings.
  STATUS : W/A
ZEA MAYS  (Corn Silk)
  STIGMAS.  Standard Infusion, 4-6 ounces to 3X a day.  Fresh Silk Tincture, [1:2], 1/2 to 1 1/2 teaspoons in 8 ounces water.
  STATUS : C
ZINGIBER  (Ginger Root)
  ROOT. Fresh Root Tincture [1:2] 10-20 drops in warm water. Strong Decoction 1-2 ounces, both as needed.
  STATUS : C

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OUTLINE OF PREPARATION METHODS
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COLD  INFUSION
After pre-moistening a bit, wrap one part herb (dry weight) in cloth and suspend it in 32 parts of water (by volume) at room temperature, overnight.  Squeeze out the herb into the tea in the morning, and add enough water to bring it back to 32 parts.

STANDARD  INFUSION
Boil 32 parts of water, remove from heat, and steep one part (by weight) of the herb in the water for 20-30 minutes.  Strain, and pour sufficient water through the herb in the strainer to return the volume of tea to 32 parts.

STRONG  DECOCTION
Combine 32 parts of water with one part of herb (by weight), bring slowly to a boil, continue for ten minutes, cool until warm, and strain.  Pour additional water through the herb to return the volume to 32. 
 
A WEAK DECOCTION is the same, but using half as much herb in the same volume
of water.

COMMENTS.   Except for the weak decoction, the above teas end up with an 
ounce having the constituents of a gram of herb.  If the dosage recommends 
4 ounces of Strong Decoction, and you only want a single batch, use 4 grams
of herb, or divide an ounce of herb into eight equal parts and use one part
for the tea.  (Yes, they aren't quite equal...4 grams and an eighth of an
ounce...but these are HERBS...lighten up already). 

DO NOT MAKE MORE THAN A DAY'S WORTH OF TEA AT ONE TIME.

EYEWASH and DOUCHE
Make an isotonic water by adding a slightly rounded teaspoon of salt to a 
quart of clean water (1/2 teaspoon per pint, 1/4 teaspoon per cup), and make 
the tea with this solution as per the recommended strength.  Make a fresh
batch every 5-6 hours.

FRESH PLANT TINCTURE
One part by weight of the fresh, chopped herb is steeped for 7-10 days in 
two parts by volume of grain alcohol (190 proof or 95% ethanol), and 
pressed or squeezed out.  There is no reason to blend or shake this 
maceration; the tincture is formed passively as a result of dehydration.  
Ethanol draws out all plant constituents that contain water, leaving only 
cellulose and dead tissue behind.

DRY PLANT TINCTURE: Maceration.
If the Materia Medica calls for a [1:5, 60% alcohol] tincture, it means 
this:  your solvent is 60% alcohol and 40% water (the water is presumed), 
and one part of herb by weight has been invested in five parts of solvent 
by volume.  Let me run you through one.  You have four ounces of dried Blue
Cohosh roots, which you then grind and sift down to a fairly consistent 
coarse powder.  The four ounces (1) must be mixed with 20 ounces of solvent 
(5).  The solvent is 60% alcohol, the rest water, so you mix 12 ounces of
ethanol and 8 ounces of water to get the final volume.  Mix both together in
a closed jar, and shake the mixture up for a couple of minutes twice a day.
After 10-14 days of this, let it set another day, pour off the clear tincture
from the top, and squeeze as much out of the sediment as your press or wrists
allow.  The 20 ounces of solvent (called menstruum) and 4 ounces of herb, may
yield up 13-14 ounces of tincture (by wrist) and up to 17 ounces (by press);
the rest is immutably held in the sediment (called marc).  This remnant
moisture is full strength tincture, and eventually this knowledge drives one
out of four herbalists stark raving nuts.  The resultant attempts to
constantly upgrade hydraulic presses rivals the feeding frenzy at computer
hardware conventions.

DRY PLANT TINCTURE: Percolation.  
This is a method that needs physical demonstration and hands-on practice.  That being said, this is a brief run down of the process.  The same Blue Cohosh has been freshly ground as before.  Pack it into a measuring cup to check its compressed volume...probably about six ounces.  The menstruum will need to be the 20 ounces PLUS the 6 ounce volume the ground dry herb takes up.

The proportion is the same; 60% alcohol and 40% water.  60% of 26 ounces is 15.6 fluid ounces (the alcohol), 40% is 10.4 (water).  This gives you your 26 ounces of 60:40 menstruum. Place the powdered herb in a little mixing bowl with a top, add about two-thirds as much menstruum as the herb took up in volume.  It took up six ounces in volume, so add four ounces of menstruum to the herb, and mix it thoroughly, then cover it.  This may be confusing; the herb WEIGHS 4 ounces, but FILLS 6 ounces of volume.  The reason for checking its VOLUME will become apparent.  Anyway, the menstruum-moistened herb needs to stay covered and digesting for at least 12, preferably 24 hours.  Now you will need a percolating cone...didn't I mention that?  Me and my students find that a large Perrier bottle with its bottom removed sits upside-down inside a large-mouthed Mason jar very nicely, and the screw cap can be used to control the rate of drip out of the bottom (former top). Anyway, you will need to place some moistened herb inside a coffee filter cone, slide it into the neck of the cone, and gradually add the moistened herb on top.  It needs to be compressed and compacted onto the first batch, until you have an evenly distributed column of herb inside the cone.  Place a filter on the level herb-column, and pour some menstruum slowly on top.

The menstruum should descent evenly down the herb column,and drip from the
bottom at about one drip per second.  If it never drips out the bottom, you
packed too tight.  If it drips too quickly (drools is a better word), lift
the cone out of the Mason jar, and screw the cap on until the drool becomes
a slow drip.  Keep fresh menstruum covering the top of the herb until it
drips through.  This can take one or two hours (or more).  
  
When it has finished, there will be 20 ounces of tincture in the Mason
jar, and the last six ounces of menstruum (virtually inert) will stay in
the herb column, like a moist sponge.  Toss it.  Now you see why you need
to measure the dry herb volume; you make just enough menstruum for that batch
of tincture, and you won't have little jars with left-over excess menstruums
that are impossible to compute into another batch with different proportions.
Every Pharmacist has a copy of Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, which
describes the process in great detail, and explains why you get better
tinctures when percolating. 

FLUID EXTRACT
Briefly, take 8 ounces of Tabebuia (Pau D'Arco), grind it, make up an
arbitrary amount of menstruum (let's say four times as much, or 32 ounces).
The tincture lists a 50% strength; make your fluidextract menstruum 20%
higher in alcohol content (i.e. 70%).  Mix 22.4 ounces of alcohol with 9.6
ounces of water to get a quart of 70% alcohol menstruum.  Take the Tabebuia,
moisten it, digest it for TWO days, pack a larger cone with it, and drip
(very slowly) a first batch of tincture that is only 75% of the volume as
the original dry herb weighed.  This means after you have dripped 6 fluid
ounces, take it away, and continue dripping everything else into a second
jar.  As the rest of the menstruum finally starts to sink below the top of
the herb column, start adding water into the cone.  This second drip can be
any amount you wish...a quart, two quarts, whatever.   You will need to
evaporate it all in a double boiler until it is reduced to 25% in volume of
the herb weight...2 ounces in this case.  Add the vile remnant of the second
percolation to the 6 ounces from the first percolation, and you now have 8
ounces of fluidextract, made from 8 ounces of Tabebuia Bark.  A Fluidextract
is by definition 1:1 in strength.  Now clean up.

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INDEX of ALTERNATE NAMES
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

ALTERNATE NAME - - LISTED NAME
Acanthopanax  -  Eleutherococcus
Aconite  -  Aconitum
Actea arguta  -  Actea rubra
African Bird Pepper  -  Capsicum
Agothasma  -  Barosma
Agrimony  -  Agrimonia
Alder  -  Alnus
Alder, Black  -  Prinos
Alder, Buckthorn  -  Frangula
Alegria  -  Amaranthus
Alfalfa  -  Medicago
Alfilerillo  -  Erodium
Algerita  -  Mahonia
Allspice  -  Pimenta
Aloes Socrotine  -  Aloe
Alpine Lichen  -  Parmelia  
Alum Root  -  Geranium
Alum,American  -  Heuchera
Amapa  -  Tabebuia
American Aloe   -    Agave
American Sarsaparilla  -  Aralia nudicaulis
Amole  -  Yucca
Amole Lily  -  Chorogalum
Anemone hepatica  -  Hepatica
Anemone pulsatilla  -  Anemone hirsutissima
Anise, Star  -  Illicium
Aniseed  -  Anisum
Antelope Horns  -  Asclepias asperula
Arabic Gum  -  Acacia senegal
Arbor Vitae  -  Thuja
Arbutus, trailing  -  Epigea
Arnica, Mexican  -  Heterotheca
Artichoke  -  Cynara
Ash  -  Fraxinus
Ash, Prickly  -  Xanthoxylum
Ash, Wafer  -  Ptelea
Aspen  -  Populus tremuliodes
Avens  -  Geum
Balm of Gilead  -  Populus candicans
Balmony  -  Chelone
Balsam Root  -  Balsamorhiza
Baneberry  -  Actea
Barberry  -  Berberis
Bayberry  -  Myrica
Bearberry  -  Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Bearsfoot  -  Polymnia
Bedstraw  -  Galium
Berberis aquifolium  -  Mahonia
Bethroot  -  Trillium
Betony  -  Pedicularis
Bilberry  -  Vaccinium
Birch  -  Betula
Biscuit Root  -  Lomatium
Bishop's Weed  -  Ammi majus, A. visnaga
Bistort  -  Polygonum bistorta
Bittersweet  -  Solanum dulcamara
Black Cohosh  -  Cimicifuga
Black Haw  -  Viburnum
Black Root  -  Leptandra
Black Sampson  -  Echinacea angustifolia
Black Walnut  -  Juglans major
Blackberry  -  Rubus villosus
Bladderwrack  -  Fucus
Blazing Star  -  Liatris
Bleeding Heart  -  Dicentra formosa
Blessed Thistle  -  Cnicus
Bloodroot  -  Sanguinaria
Blue Cohosh  -  Caulophyllum
Blue Flag  -  Iris
Blueberry  -  Vaccinium
Boneset  -  Eupatorium perfoliatum
Bouncing Bet  -  Saponaria  
Brahmi  -  Centella
Bricklebush  -  Brickellia
Broom Tops  -  Scoparius
Broom, Butcher's  -  Ruscus Aculeatus  
Broomrape  -  Orobanche
Bryony  -  Bryonia
Buchu  -  Barosma
Buckbean  -  Menyanthes
Buckeye  -  Aesculus glabra
Buckeye, California  -  Aesculus californica
Buckthorn  -  Frangula
Buckthorn  -  Rhamnus cathartica  
Buckthorn, Cal.  -  Rhamnus californica
Buckwheat Bush  -  Eriogonum
Bugleweed  -  Lycopus
Bunchberry  -  Cornus
Burdock  -  Arctium
Burning Bush  -  Euonymus
Bursage  -  Ambrosia
Butcher's Broom  -  Ruscus Aculeatus  
Butter-and-eggs  -  Linaria
Butterfly Milkwees  -  Asclepias tuberosa
Butternut  -  Juglans cineria
Button Bush  -  Cephalanthus
Cachana  -  Liatris
Cactus  -  Cereus, Opuntia
Calamus  -  Acorus Calamus
Calif. Buckeye  -  Aesculus californica
Calif. Poppy  -  Eschscholtzia
Calif. Slippery Elm  -  Fremontia
Calif. Snakeroot  -  Aristolochia californica
Camphor Weed  -  Heterotheca, Pluchea
Can. Balsam  -  Abies
Can. Fleabane  -  Erigeron
Can. Hemp  -  Apocynum
Can. Snakeroot  -  Asarum
Canaigre  -  Rumex hymenosepalus
Canela  -  Cinnamonum
Canutillo  -  Ephedra viridis
Caraway  -  Carum
Cardinal Flower  -  Lobelia cardinalis
Cardo Santo  -  Argemone
Carrot  -  Daucus
Cascara Sagrada  -  Rhamnus purshiana
Cassia angustifolia  -  Senna
Cat's Paw  -  Antennaria
Cataria  -  Nepeta
Catclaw Acacia  -  Acacia greggii
Catnip  -  Nepeta
Cayenne  -  Capsicum
Cebadilla  -  Swertia
Celandine  -  Chelidonium
Celery  -  Apium
Cenizo  -  Leucophyllum
Centaury  -  Centaurium
Century Plant  -  Agave
Chamomile  -  Matricaria
Chamomile, Roman  -  Anthemis
Chaparral  -  Larrea
Chaparro Amargosa  -  Castela
Chaste Tree Berries  -  Vitex Agnus-Castus
Cheeseplant  -  Malva
Cherry, Wild  -  Prunus
Chestnut  -  Castanea
Chestnut, Horse  -  Aesculus hippocastinum
Chickweed  -  Stellaria Media
Chicory  -  Cichorium
Chilcuan  -  Heliopsis
Chimaja  -  Cymopterus
Cilantro  -  Coriandrum
Cinquefoil  -  Potentilla
Cistus  -  Helianthemum, Cistus
Cleavers  -  Galium
Clover, Red  -  Trifolium pratens
Clover, Sweet  -  Melilotus
Clover, Yellow  -  Melilotus
Cloves  -  Caryophyllus
Cochlearia  -   Armoracia 
Cocklebur  -  Xanthium
Coffee  -  Caffea
Cohosh, Black  -  Cimicifuga
Cohosh, Blue  -  Caulophyllum
Coltsfoot  -  Tussilago
Coltsfoot, Western  -  Petasites
Columbo, American  -  Swertia
Comfrey  -  Symphytum
Common Ivy  -  Hedera helix  
Coneflower  -  Echinacea, all
Conopholis  -  Orobanche
Conyza  -  Erigeron
Copaiba  -  Copaifera
Coral Root  -  Coralorrhiza
Corn Silk  -  Zea Mays
Corn Smut  -  Ustilago
Corydalis canadensis  -  Dicentra
Cota  -  Thelesperma
Cotton Root  -  Gossypium
Couchgrass  -  Agropyron
Cow Parsnip  -  Heracleum
Cowslip  -  Primula
Cramp Bark  -  Viburnum
Cranesbill  -  Geranium
Crawley  -  Coralorrhiza
Creosote Bush  -  Larrea
Cuauchichic  -  Garrya
Cudweed  -  Gnaphalium
Culver's Root  -  Leptandra
Cypress  -  Cupressus
Cytisus  -  Scoparius
Damiana  -  Turnera
Dandelion  -  Taraxacum
Desert Anemone  -  Anemone Tuberosa
Desert Lavender  -  Hyptis
Desert Tea  -  Ephedra viridis
Desert Willow  -  Chilopsis
Devil's Claw  -  Harpagophytum
Devil's Club  -  Oplopanax
Devil's Dung  -  Asafetida
Devil's Walkingstick  -  Aralia hispida
Dock, Prairie  -  Parthenium integrifolium
Dodder  -  Cuscuta
Dogbane  -  Apocynum
Doggrass  -  Agropyron
Dogwood  -  Cornus
Dogwood, Jamaican  -  Piscidia
Dong Quai  -  Angelica sinensis
Dryopteris  -  Aspidium
Dugaldia  -  Helenium
Dusty Miller  -  Cineraria
Elder  -  Sambucus
Elder, Dwarf  -  Aralia hispida
Elecampane  -  Inula
Elephant Head  -  Pedicularis
Elephant Tree  -  Bursera
Epazote  -  Chenopodium
Eryngo  -  Eryngium
Escoba de la Vibora  -  Gutierrezia
Everlasting  -  Gnaphalium
Eyebright  -  Euphrasia
False Aloe  -  Agave
False Solomons Seal  -  Smilacina
Fennel  -  Foeniculum
Fern, Maidenhair  -  Adiantum
Fern, Male  -  Aspidium
Ferula asafetida  -  Asafetida
Ferula sumbul  -  Sumbul
Feverfew  -  Chrysanthemum parthenium
Figwort  -  Scrophularia
Fireweed  -  Epilobium, Erechtites
Flag, Blue  -  Iris
Flag, Sweet  -  Acorus Calamus
Flax  -  Linum
Fleabane  -  Erigeron
Fo-Tzu  -  Aconitum carmichaeli
Fringetree  -  Chionanthus
Frostwort  -  Helianthemum
Fu-tze  -  Aconitum carmichaeli
Fumitory  -  Fumaria  
Galangal  -  Alpinia
Garlic  -  Allium sativum
Gay Feather  -  Liatris
Gentian  -  Gentiana
Gentian, Green  -  Swertia
Giant Willow Herb  -  Epilobium
Ginger  -  Zingiber
Ginger, Wild  -  Asarum
Ginseng  -  Panax
Ginseng,Siberian  -  Eleutherococcus
Goat's Head  -  Tribulus
Gold Thread  -  Coptis
Golden Seal  -  Hydrastis
Golden Smoke  -  Corydalis aureus
Goldenrod  -  Solidago  
Gotu Kola  -  Centella
Gravel Root  -  Eupatorium purpureum
Ground Ivy  -  Glechoma   
Guarana  -  Paullinia
Guayacan  -  Guaiacum angustifolium
Gum Arabic  -  Acacia senegal
Gumweed  -  Grindelia
Habin  -  Piscidia
Hair Moss  -  Usnea
Hamula  -  Brickellia
Hawthorn  -  Crataegus
Heal All  -  Prunella
Hedge Nettle  -  Stachys
Hedge Nettle  -  Gratiola  
Hediondilla  -  Larrea
Helianthemum  -  Cistus, Helianthemum
Hellebore, Am.  -  Veratrum
Hellebore, False  -  Veratrum
Hellebore, Green  -  Veratrum
Helleborine  -  Epipactis
Hemlock Spruce  -  Abies
Hemp  -  Cannabis
Henbane  -  Hyocyamus
Hercules Club  -  Aralia spinosa
Holacantha  -  Castela
Hollyhock  -  Althea
Holy Thistle  -  Cnicus
Hop Tree  -  Ptelea
Hops  -  Humulus
Horehound  -  Marrubium
Horehound, Water  -  Lycopus
Horse Balm  -  Collinsonia
Horse Chestnut  -  Aesculus hippocastinum
Horse Nettle  -  Solanum carolinense
Horsemint  -  Monarda
Horseradish  -  Armoracia
Horsetail  -  Equisetum
Hound's Tongue  -  Cynoglossum
Huang Chi  -  Astragalus
Huckleberry  -  Vaccinium
Hydrocotyle  -  Centella
Hyssop  -  Hyssopus
Iceland Moss  -  Cetraria  
Ilex verticillatus  -  Prinos
Incienso  -  Brickellia
Indian Root  -  Aristolochia watsonii
Indian Warrior  -  Pedicularis
Indigo, Wild  -  Baptisia
Inmortal  -  Asclepias asperula
Ipe Roxo  -  Tabebuia
Ivy, Common  -  Hedera helix 
Ivy, Ground  -  Glechoma  
Jabin  -  Piscidia
Jaborandi  -  Pilocarpus
Jack-in-the-Pulpit  -  Arisaema
Jamaica Dogwood  -  Piscidia
Jasmine, Yellow  -  Gelsemium
Jatamansi  -  Sumbul
Jersey Tea  -  Ceanothus
Jewel Weed  -  Impatiens
Jimson Weed  -  Datura
Jojoba  -  Simmondsia
Juniper   Juniperus
Kava Kava  -  Piper methysticum
Khella  -  Ammi Visnaga
Kinnikinnick  -  Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Knotgrass  -  Polygonum aviculare  
Kola  -  Cola
Labrador Tea  -  Ledum
Ladies Mantle  -  Alchemilla
Lady Slipper  -  Cypripedium
Lapacho  -  Tabebuia
Lappa  -  Arctium
Larkspur  -  Delphinium
Laurel, California  -  Umbellularia
Lavender  -  Lavandula
Leafcup  -  Polymnia
Lechuguilla  -  Agave
Lemon  -  Limon
Lemon Balm  -  Melissa
Leptotania  -  Lomatium
Lespedeza  -  Lespedeza Capitata  
Lettuce, Wild  -  Lactuca
Lichen, Alpine  -  Parmelia  
Licorice  -  Glycyrrhiza
Licorice Fern  -  Polypodium
Liferoot  -  Senecio
Lignum Vitae  -  Guaiacum
Lily of the Valley  -  Convallaria
Lily, Tiger  -  Lilium tigrinum
Liriosma  -  Ptychopetalum
Liverwort  -  Hepatica
Lizard Tail  -  Anemopsis
Lobaria  -  Sticta
Logwood  -  Hematoxylon
Loose-Strife  -  Lythrum   
Lotebush  -  Condalia
Lousewort  -  Pedicularis
Lungwort Moss  -  Sticta
Lungwort  -  Pulmonaria
Ma Huang  -  Ephedra vulgaris
Macrotys  -  Cimicifuga
Madder  -  Rubia tinctorium  
Madrone  -  Arbutus
Maguey  -  Agave
Maidenhair Fern  -  Adiantum
Maidenhair Tree  -  Ginkgo
Mandrake, Amer.  -  Podophyllum
Manzanilla  -  Matricaria
Manzanita  -  Arctostaphylos
Maravilla  -  Mirabilis
Marigold, Europ.  -  Calendula
Marijuana  -  Cannabis
Marsh Fleabane  -  Pluchea
Marshmallow  -  Althea
Mate  -  Ilex Paraguaensis
Matico  -  Piper angustifolia
Maturin  -  Cacalia
Maturique  -  Cacalia
May Apple  -  Podophyllum
Meadowsweet  -  Filipendula
Mescal Buttons  -  Lophophora
Mesquite  -  Prosopis
Mikweed, Common  -  Asclepias cornuta
Milfoil  -  Achillea
Milk Thistle  -  Silybum
Milkweed, Desert  -  Asclepias subulata
Milkweed, Spider  -  Asclepias asperula
Milkweed, Swamp  -  Asclepias incarnata
Milkweed,Butterfly  -  Asclepias tuberosa
Mimbre  -  Chilopsis
Mint, Water  -  Mentha Aquatica  
Mistletoe  -  Viscum
Monks Pepper  -  Vitex agnus-castus
Monkshood  -  Aconitum
Mormon Tea  -  Ephedra viridis
Moss, Iceland  -  Cetraria  
Motherwort  -  Leonurus
Mountain Everlasting  -  Antennaria
Mountain Laurel  -  Kalmia
Mountain Mahogany  -  Cercocarpus
Mugwort  -  Artemisia vulgaris
Muirapuama  -  Ptychopetalum
Mullein  -  Verbascum
Musk Root  -  Sumbul
Mustard  -  Sinapis
Myroxylum pereirae  -  Balsam of Peru
Myroxylum toluiferum  -  Balsam of Tolu
Myrrh  -  Commiphora
Navajo Tea  -  Thelesperma
Nerve Root  -  Cypripedium
Nettles  -  Urtica
New Jersey Tea  -  Ceanothus
Night-Blooming Cereus  -  Cereus
Nutmeg  -  Myristica
Oak  -  Quercus
Oats  -  Avena
Ocotillo  -  Fouqueria
Odontotrichum  -  Cacalia
Ohio Buckeye  -  Aesculus glabra
Old Man's Beard  -  Usnea
Olive     Olea Europaea
Orange Sneezeweed  -  Helenium
Oregon Myrtle  -  Umbellularia
Orris Root  -  Iris Florentina  
Oxe-Eye Daisy  -  Leucanthemum
Parrot's Beak  -  Pedicularis
Parsley  -  Petroselinum
Pasque Flower  -  Anemone hirsutissima
Passion Flower  -  Passiflora
Pau D'Arco  -  Tabebuia
Pausinystalia  -  Corynanthe
Peach Tree  -  Amygdalus
Pearly Everlasting  -  Anaphalis
Pellitory-Of-The-Wall  -  Parietaria  
Peniocereus  -  Cereus
Pennyroyal  -  Hedeoma
Pennyroyal, European  -  Mentha pulegium
Peony  -  Paeonia
Pepper, Black  -  Piper nigrum
Pepper, Cayenne  -  Capsicum
Peppermint  -  Mentha piperita
Periwinkle  -  Vinca major
Peruvian Balsam  -  Balsam of Peru
Peruvian Bark  -  Cinchona
Peyote  -  Lophophora
Pheasant's Eye  -  Adonis vernalis
Picrasma  -  Picraena
Pigweed  -  Amaranthus
Pincture Vine  -  Tribulus
Pine  -  Pinus
Pineapple Weed  -  Matricaria Matricarioides  
Pinkroot  -  Spigelia
Piper cubeba  -  Cubeba
Pipsissewa  -  Chimaphila
Plantain  -  Plantago
Pleurisy Root  -  Asclepias tuberosa
Plumajillo  -  Achillea
Poke Root, Berries  -  Phytolacca
Poleo  -  Mentha arvensis
Poleo Chino  -  Hedeoma
Pomegranate  -  Granatum
Pond Lily, White  -  Nymphaea  
Ponil  -  Cercocarpus
Poplar Buds  -  Populus candicans
Porlieri  -  Guaiacum angustifolium
Prairie Dock  -  Parthenium integrifolium 
Prickly Ash  -  Xanthoxylum
Prickly Pear  -  Opuntia
Prickly Poppy  -  Argemone
Primrose  -  Primula
Primrose, Evening  -  Oenothera
Privet  -  Ligustrum
Prodigiosa  -  Brickellia
Prunus africanum  -  Pygeum africanum
Psyllium  -  Plantago ovata
Pterocarpus  -  Kino
Pulsatilla  -  Anemone hirsutissima
Punica  -  Granatum
Purple Sage  -  Leucophyllum
Pussy Toes  -  Antennaria
Pyrethrum parthenium  -  Chrysanthemum parthenium
Quassia  -  Picraena
Quebracho  -  Aspidosperma
Queen of the Meadow  -  Eupatorium purp.
Queen's Root  -  Stillingia
Quinine Bark  -  Cinchona
Quinine Bush  -  Garrya
Ragweed  -  Ambrosia
Ragwort  -  Senecio
Raiz del Indio  -  Aristolochia watsonii
Raiz del Oro    Heliopsis
Raspberry  -  Rubus idaeus
Rattlesnake Master  -  Eryngium
Red Osier  -  Cornus
Red Root  -  Ceanothus
Rhamnus frangula  -  Frangula
Rhatany  -  Krameria
Rheumatism Root  -  Jeffersonia
Rhubarb  -  Rheum
Rock Rose  -  Cistus, Helianthemum
Roman Chamomile  -  Anthemis
Rue  -  Ruta graveolens
Rue, Goats  -  Galega
Rue, Meadow  -  Thalictrum
Rue, Syrian  -  Peganum harmala
Sabal  -  Serenoa
Safflowers  -  Carthamus
Saffron  -  Crocus
Saffron, American  -  Carthamus
Sage  -  Salvia
Sagebrush  -  Artemisia tridentata
Sandalwood  -  Santalum
Sangre de Drago  -  Jatropha cinerea
Sanicle  -  Sanicula
Sarsaparilla  -  Smilax
Saw Palmetto  -  Serenoa
Scarlet Globemallow  -  Sphaeralcea
Scarlet Pimpernel  -  Anagallis
Scouring Rush  -  Equisetum
Selenicereus  -  Cereus
Self Heal  -  Prunella
Senecio cineraria  -  Cineraria
Senega Snakeroot  -  Polygala
Senna  -  Cassia, Senna
Serpentaria  -  Aristolochia serpentaria
Shavegrass  -  Equisetum
Shepherd's Purse  -  Capsella
Shinleaf  -  Pyrola
Silk Tassel  -  Garrya
Skullcap  -  Scutellaria
Skunk Cabbage  -  Dracontium
Skunk Cabbage, Western  -  Lysichiton
Smartweed  -  Polygonum hydropiper
Snakeroot, Missouri  -  Echinacea purpurea
Snakeroot,Button  -  Eryngium, Liatris
Snakeroot, Kansas  -  Echinacea angustifolia
Snakeroot,Senega  -  Polygala
Snakeroot, Virginia  -  Aristolichia serpentaria
Soapberry  -  Sapindus
Soapwort  -  Saponaria  
Solomon's Seal  -  Polygonatum
Sourwood  -  Oxydendron
Spearmint  -  Mentha viridis
Spikenard  -  Aralia racemosa
Squaw Vine  -  Mitchella
Squaw Weed  -  Senecio
St. John's Wort  -  Hypericum
Stavesacre  -  Delphinium
Stinkasant  -  Asafetida
Stone Root  -  Collinsonia
Storksbill  -  Erodium
Stramonium  -  Datura
Strawberry  -  Fragaria
Stream Orchid  -  Epipactis
Sumach, Fragrant  -  Rhus aromatica
Sumach, Smooth  -  Rhus glabra
Sumach, Sweet  -  Rhus aromatica
Sundew  -  Drosera
Sweet Cicely  -  Osmorhiza
Sweet Clover  -  Melilotus
Sweet Flag  -  Acorus Calamus
Sweet Root  -  Osmorhiza
Sweetgum  -  Liquidamber
Symplocarpus  -  Dracontium
Syrian Rue  -  Peganum harmala
Tag Alder  -  Alnus
Taheebo  -  Tabebuia
Tang Kwei  -  Angelica sinensis
Tansy  -  Tanacetum
Te de Coral  -  Bidens
Teasel  -  Dipsacus
Tecomblate  -  Condalia
Texas Ranger  -  Leucophyllum
Thlaspi  -  Capsella
Tickseed  -  Bidens
Toadflax  -  Linaria
Tobacco  -  Nicotiana
Tobacco, Indian  -  Lobelia inflata
Toluifera  -  Balsam of Peru
Torote  -  Bursera
Trailing Arbutus  -  Epigea
Tree of Heaven  -  Ailanthus
Triticum  -  Agropyrons
Trumpet Creeper  -  Campsis
Trumpet Flower  -  Tecoma
Tsuga  -  Abies
Turkey Corn  -  Dicentra
Turkey Mullein  -  Eremocarpus
Turkey Rhubarb  -  Rheum
Turmeric  -  Curcuma
Turtlehead  -  Chelone
Twin Leaf  -  Jeffersonia
Una De Gato  -  Uncaria
Unicorn Root  -  Aletris, Chamaelirium
Uva Ursi  -  Arctostaphylos
Vanilla Leaf  -  Achlys
Veronicastrum  -  Leptandra
Vervain  -  Verbena
Virgin's Bower  -  Clematis
Virginia Snakeroot  -  Aristolochia serpentaria
Wafer Ash  -  Ptelea
Wahoo  -  Euonymus
Water Eryngo  -  Eryngium
Water Horehound  -  Lycopus
Water Mint  -  Mentha Aquatica  
Water Pepper  -  Polygonum hydropiper
Western Coltsfoot  -  Petasites
White Pond Lily  -  Nymphaea  
Wild Ginger  -  Asarum
Wild Indigo  -  Baptisia
Wild Lettuce  -  Lactuca
Wild Yam  -  Dioscorea
Wintergreen  -  Gaultheria
Witch Hazel  -  Hamamelis
Wolf Berry  -  Lycium
Wormseed  -  Chenopodium
Wormwood  -  Artemisia absinthium
Woundwort  -  Stachys
Yarrow  -  Achillea
Yellow Dock  -  Rumex crispus
Yellow Jasmine  -  Gelsemium
Yellow Parilla  -  Menispermum
Yellow Pond Lily  -  Nuphar
Yerba Mansa  -  Anemopsis
Yerba Mate  -  Ilex Paraguaensis  
Yerba Reuma  -  Frankenia
Yerba Santa  -  Eriodictyon
Yerba de la Negrita  -  Sphaeralcea
Yerba del Lobo  -  Helenium
Yerba del Sapo  -  Ambrosia
Yohimbe  -  Corynanthe

SOUTHWEST SCHOOL OF BOTANICAL MEDICINE
PO Box 4565, Bisbee, AZ 85603
(520) 432-5855  
Internet: hrbmoore@mindspring.com
www.swsbm.com

Michael Moore, Director
Donna Chesner, Administrator

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